Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Oxford Classical Dictionary. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 29 November 2023



  • Arnold Hugh Martin Jones,
  • J. David Hawkins
  •  and Antony Spawforth


Country on the west bank of the upper Euphrates, first known as the neo-Hittite kingdom of Kummuh with a capital of the same name at *Samosata. Its history can be partially reconstructed from Assyrian sources c.870–605 bce, and hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions of its kings dating c.805–770 bce have been found. In 708 bce it was conquered and annexed to the Assyrian empire (see assyria), remaining a province until 607 bce.It was incorporated into the *Seleucid empire by the reign of *Antiochus (3) III at the latest; it became an independent kingdom c.162 bce when its governor, Ptolemaeus, revolted against the Seleucids (Diod. Sic. 31. 19a). His son Samos was succeeded as king by Mithradates Callinicus (c.96–c.70). The latter's son, *Antiochus (9) I, submitted to *Pompey in 64 bce and was rewarded with a piece of Mesopotamia; he was deposed by Antony in 38 bce for abetting the Parthian invasion.


  • Near East

You do not currently have access to this article


Please login to access the full content.


Access to the full content requires a subscription