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date: 27 November 2022



  • C. Robert Phillips


A Roman god of the granary (from condere ‘to store’) whose festivals (Consualia) on 21 August and 15 December coincided, respectively, with the gathering of the harvest and the onset of winter. The ancients commonly supposed his name to have something to do with consilium (VarroARD 140 Cardauns). Horses as funerary animals (Gell. NA 10. 15. 3, fasti Praenestini 15 December) were added under Etruscan influence (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2. 31) and led to a misidentification with Poseidon Hippios (Livy 1. 9. 6 with Ogilvie's notes; Latte, RR72). He seems connected with two festivals of *Ops: Opiconsivia (25 August) and Opalia (19 December). Since corn was often stored underground, this may account for his subterranean altar in the Circus Maximus, uncovered only on his festival days (Varro, Ling. 6. 20; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2. 31); for its alleged inscription (Tert. De spect.


  • Roman Myth and Religion

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