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date: 29 February 2024


, 'Caligula', Roman emperor, 12–41 CE


, 'Caligula', Roman emperor, 12–41 CE
  • John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon,
  • Barbara Levick
  •  and Tessa Rajak


Gaius (1) the emperor, ‘Caligula’ (Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus, (12–41 ce), son of Germanicus (see iulius caesar, germanicus) and *Agrippina the Elder, born at *Antium (31 August). In 14–16 he was on the Rhine with his parents and, dressed in miniature uniform, was nicknamed ‘Caligula’ (‘Bootee’) by the soldiers. He went with his parents to the east in 17 and, after Germanicus' death in 19, lived in Rome with his mother until her arrest in 29, then successively with *Livia Drusilla and *Antonia (3) until he joined *Tiberius on Capreae. The downfall of Tiberius' favourite *Sejanus in 31 was to Gaius' advantage, and it was probably engineered by him and associates such as the prefect of the watch (*vigiles) *Macro, who also benefited. After the death of his brother Drusus *Iulius Caesar (2) in 33 Gaius was the only surviving son of Germanicus and, with Tiberius *Iulius Caesar Nero ‘Gemellus’—Claudius' claim not being considered—next in succession.


  • Jewish Studies
  • Roman History and Historiography

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