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date: 31 January 2023



  • G. J. Toomer
  •  and Alexander Jones


Writer of elementary textbooks on mathematical subjects (probably c.50 bce); see mathematics. His only extant work is Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα (‘Introduction to Astronomy’), which gives a factual account of basic concepts in *astronomy, mathematical geography, and the calendar. Although the mathematics in this hardly goes beyond listing numerical parameters, it is important as a source for Greek knowledge of Babylonian astronomy, which appears particularly in the sections on the moon, and for the account of Greek luni-solar calendaric schemes (see astronomy). The parapēgma (astronomical calendar) appended to this treatise is not by Geminus, but considerably older. Geminus also wrote a treatise on the scope of the mathematical sciences entitled Περὶ τῆς τῶν μαθημάτων τάξεως or θεωρίας, in at least six books, which is cited by various writers, especially *Proclus and the scholiasts on *Euclid book 1. This included a classification of the mathematical sciences, arithmetic, geometry, *mechanics, *astronomy, *optics, geodesy, *music, and logistic (practical calculation), an examination of the first principles, definitions, postulates, axioms, and the structure based on them.


  • Science, Technology, and Medicine

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