- John Kinloch Anderson
ExtractThe present state of the evidence indicates that the horse was domesticated on the Ukrainian steppe during the neolithic period. It was known in *Mesopotamia during the third millennium bce and early bronze age horse-bones have been found in *Macedonia. Shortly before the middle of the second millennium horse-drawn war-chariots were widely used in the near east, including Eighteenth-Dynasty *Egypt. Chariots are represented in the art of Grave Circle A at *Mycenae, and horse-bones were found in abundance at Troy VI. In the *Cnossus Linear B tablets (see mycenaean language) horses and chariots are associated with armour; the vocabulary (i-qo, horse; po-ro, foal) is *Indo-European. See minoan and mycenaean civilization. Mounted men are rarely shown in Egyptian and Mycenaean art; it is at least clear that bronze age horses were capable of bearing riders, and the reasons why chariotry precedes cavalry are disputed. In the Old Testament, kings continue to ride in chariots long after the appearance of ‘horsemen riding upon horses’, and the art of the Assyrian New Kingdom shows the gradual development of cavalry during the early iron age, with Scythian influence becoming evident in the 7th cent. bce.
- Greek Material Culture: Bronze Age