Larinum (modern Larino, Molise) was a city located on the eastern edge of Samnium on the southern border of the territory of the Frentani, and on the northern border of Daunia (see Daunians) (Fig. 1). The ethnic affiliation of the city is disputed by ancient authors (Caes. B Civ. 1.23; Livy 22.18.8, 22.24.1, 27.43.10; Plin. HN 3.11.103, 3.11.105; Pompon. 2.65; Ptol. Geog. 3.1; Steph. Byz. 413 lines 16–17), but it is clear that the pre-Roman inhabitants of Larinum spoke Oscan and shared cultural traits with their various neighbors.The earliest evidence of human activity at Larinum is a series of prehistoric tombs dating to the 9th centurybce. Later, in the 7th or 6th centurybce, a defensive earthwork agger and fossa may have been built at the site. Traces of the first stone houses at Larinum likely date as early as the 5th centurybce, and a new fortification wall with some stretches built in polygonal masonry was erected in the late 4th or early 3rd centurybce.