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date: 31 October 2020


  • James Maxwell Ross Cormack
  •  and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond


Amphipolis, on the east bank of the Strymon, which surrounds the city on three sides (hence its name), 5 km. (3 mi.) from its seaport Eïon; it was originally the site of a Thracian town, Ennea Hodoi (‘nine ways’, Hdt. 7. 114; see thrace). After two unsuccessful attempts in 497 and 465 bce, it was colonized by the Athenians, with other Greeks, under Hagnon, son of Nicias, in 437–436 bce. It owed its importance partly to its strategic position on the coastal route between northern Greece and the Hellespont, and partly to its commercial wealth as the terminal of trade down the Strymon valley, a depot for the minerals of *Pangaeus and a centre for ship-timber (Thuc. 4. 108). In 424 bce Amphipolis surrendered to the Spartan *Brasidas. It remained independent until 357 bce, when it was captured by *Philip (1) II who gave it a favoured status in the Macedonian kingdom. *Alexander (3) the Great made it the chief mint in his domains.


  • Historical Geography
  • Greek and Roman Archaeology

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