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date: 17 April 2024



  • Herbert Jennings Rose
  •  and John Scheid


Mars (Mavors, Mamars, Oscan Mamers, Etr. Maris; reduplicated Marmar), next to *Jupiter the chief Italian god. Months were named after him at Rome (Martius, mod. Eng. March), *Alba Longa, Falerii (see Faliscans), *Aricia, *Tusculum, *Lavinium, and among the *Hernici, Aequiculi, Paelignians (see Paeligni), and Sabines (see Sabini) (Ov.Fast. 3. 89–95, presumably from *Verrius Flaccus). At Rome his festivals came in March and October, with the exception of the first *Equirria (27 February). They were the feriae Marti on 1 March (old New Year's Day), second Equirria (14 March), agonium Martiale (17 March), *Quinquatrus (19 March; afterwards extended to five days and supposed to be a festival of *Minerva), and *Tubilustrium (23 March). All these may be reasonably explained, so far as their ritual is known, as preparations for the campaigning season, with performance of rites to benefit the horses (Equirria), trumpets (Tubilustrium), and other necessaries for the conduct of war. On 1, 9, and 23 March also, the *Salii, an ancient priesthood belonging to Jupiter, Mars, and *Quirinus (Serv.


  • Roman Myth and Religion

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