Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan), the NW corner and least accessible part of Media, in the isolated mountainous zone of the Urmia basin, named after the Achaemenid satrap, Atropates (328/7–323 bce). It was left independent by the Seleucids under local Iranian dynasts (this probably dating from 323 bce). Antiochus (3) III made a successful show of force against the then ruler, the aged Artabarzanes, to prevent possible collaboration with potential rebels in the context of Molon's revolt (Polyb. 5. 55. 1). Seleucid garrisons at the Karafto caves and Arvoman, on the borders of Media Atropatene, are likely to have been founded to keep an eye on the region. The area was regarded as an independent kingdom (Strabo 11. 13. 1) under first the Seleucids, then Armenia and Rome.