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date: 19 April 2024


, fortified hill north-east of Piraeus


, fortified hill north-east of Piraeus
  • Robert Garland


Munichia (1) (or Munychia), mod. Kastella, is a steep hill to the north-east of *Piraeus which rises to a height of 86 m. (282 ft.). Directly below is Munichia Port and to the south-east Zea Port. In 510 bce*Hippias (1) began fortifying the hill, intending to make it his seat of government (Ath. pol. 19. 2). The SW slope saw fighting in 403 when *Thrasybulus defeated the *Thirty Tyrants (Xen.Hell. 2. 4. 10–19). The theatre of Dionysus on its NW flank was used for dramatic festivals, *deme assemblies, and in 411 and 404 for political rallies. Munichia played an important strategic role throughout Athenian history, notably during the Macedonian occupation (322–229) when by garrisoning it the enemy were able to control both Athens and Piraeus. Its most prominent shrines were those of *Artemis Munichia (see Munichia (2)) and *Bendis.


  • Gender Studies

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