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date: 27 November 2022



  • R. W. V. Catling


Andros, the most northerly and (after *Naxos (1)) second largest (380 sq. km; 147 sq. mi.) of the *Cyclades, its windswept, mountainous landscape mitigated by sheltered, fertile valleys. Gaureion in the north-west is the only safe harbour. Its prehistory is obscure. Settled by Ionians c.900 bce, it had connections with the Thessalo-Euboean region in the geometric period. The fortified town of Zagora, occupying a bleak headland on the SW coast, first occupied c.900 bce, was largely deserted c.700 bce; a small temple still survived c.400 bce. The close-packed buildings may have housed a population as large as 2,500. Besides the evidence for 8th-cent. domestic architecture, much may be learnt about Zagora's economy and contemporary society. Another 8th-cent. town has been discovered at Ipsili. The Classical city of Andros on the south coast (mod. Palaiopolis) occupied the steep slopes of a mountainside, served by an inadequate harbour. Although the earliest remains are late Archaic, it was probably first settled early in the 7th cent., perhaps by the inhabitants of deserted geometric towns such as Zagora. Late in the century Andros founded colonies at *Acanthus, *Stagira, and Sane in *Chalcidice and at Argilus in east Macedonia.


  • Ancient Geography

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