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date: 30 October 2020

Anna Perennalocked

  • C. Robert Phillips


Anna Perenna, Roman goddess with a merry festival on 15 March (O. Fast. 3. 523–696 with Bömer's notes). This date on the Ides and the first full moon of the year by archaic reckoning (1 March being New Year's Day) imply a year-goddess; hence her name from the prayer ut annare perennareque commode liceat (‘for leave to live in and through the year to our liking’: Macrob. Sat. 1. 12. 6), but cf. the evidence from satire and mime (below) with F. Altheim, Terra Mater (1931), 91–108, and H. J. Rose, JRS 1931, 138–9. Ovid tells three stories, one identifying her with Anna, sister of *Dido (Fast. 3. 545–656), the second with an old woman of *Bovillae named Anna, who fed the plebeians during the secession to the *mons Sacer (663–74); the third, after her apotheosis (675–96), provides an aetiology for ribald verses via an encounter with *Mars Gradivus (cf.


  • Religion in the Ancient World

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