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date: 08 December 2022



  • Edward Togo Salmon
  •  and T. W. Potter


Aquileia, a city a few kilometres from the head of the Adriatic. In 186 bce Transalpine Gauls occupied this fertile site, which controls roads across the Julian Alps. Rome ejected them and founded a Latin colony (181 bce; see ius latii) to forestall similar intrusions and to exploit neighbouring gold-mines (Livy 39. 22, 54; 40. 34). Aquileia became a great military, commercial, and industrial stronghold; its *amber trade was especially important (Strabo 4. 207 f.; 5. 214). In imperial times it was a colonia, sometimes dubbed Roma secunda, the capital of Venetia et Istria, and one of the world's largest cities, with a population that perhaps approached 100,000. It had major harbour facilities, and important early Christian basilicas. When the city was sacked by *Attila in 452, many fled to the neighbouring lagoons of Venice. It was however an important medieval patriarchate, especially from the 9th cent. Ancient remains are numerous.


  • Ancient Geography

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