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date: 23 February 2024



  • Graham Burton


Vectigal meant primarily revenue derived from public land, mines, saltworks, etc., and in general, rents derived from state property. Such sources provided the basic revenues of the early republic, and remained the most important form of income for the municipia and civitates of the empire (see municipium; civitas). The term was also extended to cover indirect taxes of which only the *portoria and the vicesima libertatis, a tax of 5 per cent on the value of manumitted slaves, existed in the republic. In the Principate the number of vectigalia was increased, and they provided a considerable part of the state revenues. The inhabitants of Italy, who were exempt from *tributum, only paid vectigalia. The most important of the vectigalia were the portoria. A new document from Ephesus (AE1989, 681) of ce 62 on the portoria of Asia indicates the elaborate character of the regulations which in this case stretched back to 75 bce and concerned (e.


  • Ancient Economy

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