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date: 30 October 2020


  • Robert G. Morkot


Adulis or Adule, on the west coast of the Red Sea (at Zulla in Annesley Bay near Massawa), was used by Ptolemy II and III for elephant-hunts (see elephants), and became an important export-mart for African and re-exported Indian wares, a caravan-route leading thence inland. Greeks and Indians frequented it. When the Aksumite kingdom rose (1st cent. ce, see axumis) Adulis became its main port and base (for voyages to East Africa and *India), surpassing all others in the 3rd cent. ce. Two famous inscriptions (combined in OGI54) are among its monuments.


  • Middle Eastern History

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