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date: 08 December 2023

Commagenian, Greco-Iranian religious syncretismlocked

Commagenian, Greco-Iranian religious syncretismlocked

  • Bruno Jacobs


The religious syncretism associated with the Commagenian dynasty, combining Greek and Iranian elements, is a phenomenon linked exclusively to king Antiochus I (c. 69–36bce). Whereas its Greek component reflected contemporary paradigms, the Iranian one was constructed by combining supposed tradition with elements drawn from contemporary religious practice.The syncretistic approach is best identifiable in three male deities, known from numerous inscriptions. Each of their names combines one to three Greek elements with a single Iranian one into the following theokrasiai: Zeus-Oromasdes, Apollon-Mithras-Helios-Hermes, and Artagnes-Herakles-Ares.1In his inscriptions Antiochus essentially dedicates himself to the worship of all the gods. But at least one of his early texts refers to two named deities: Artemis Diktynna and Apollon Epekoos.2 Some years later, when the three syncretistic gods start to appear instead of those, they occur beside another named deity, a goddess sometimes called Hera Teleia (e.g. A 251), and sometimes All-nourishing Commagene (e.g. N 56f.


  • Near East

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