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Busiris  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Busiris, a legendary Egyptian king, the eponym of Busiris in the Delta, who, according to Ionian tradition, habitually slaughtered foreigners entering Egypt at the altar of *Zeus. He was finally slaughtered by *Heracles (Hdt. 2. 45, with A. B. Lloyd's, comm. (1976)). The tale was popular among classical artists and authors.

Article

Byblos  

John Boardman, Jean-François Salles, and J. F. Healey

Byblos (mod. Jubayl, Lebanon), a major port of Phoenicia, deriving much of its prosperity from the export of timber (see the Egyptian story of Wen-Amon, 11th cent. bce, though doubt is cast on this trade by Nibbi). Allegedly the oldest city in the world (so *Philon (5) of Byblos), it was occupied from the fifth millennium. Egypt took an interest in Byblos from an early date and there is evidence for relations with bronze age *Crete, Greece, and *Mesopotamia. It appears prominently in the 14th cent. bce el-Amarna letters. Excavations have yielded little of the Phoenician period, except for one early example of alphabetic writing, the sarcophagus of King Ahiram (10th cent. bce). Byblos was an independent kingdom with its own coinage under the Persians, when a massive fortress was erected. It developed as a centre for the cult of *Adonis and prospered in Roman times. The Greeks took from its name their word for papyrus (see books, greek and roman).

Article

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the area now covered by the Byzantine and Ottoman palaces of Constantinople/Istanbul. The evidence of cults and institutions confirms the claim of the Megarians (see megara) to be the main founders, but groups from the Peloponnese and central Greece probably also participated in the original colony, which is to be dated 668 (Hdt. 4. 144) or 659 bce (Euseb. Chron.). Little material earlier than the late 7th cent. has yet emerged from excavations. Except during the *Ionian Revolt the city was under Persian control from *Darius I's Scythian expedition until 478. In the Athenian empire (see delian league) it paid fifteen talents' tribute or more, deriving its wealth from tuna fishing and from tolls levied on passing ships. The city also had an extensive territory not only in European *Thrace but also in *Bithynia and Mysia in Asia.

Article

Lawrence H. Schiffman

The Cairo geniza was a storeroom for no longer usable holy books in the synagogue of Fustat, Old Cairo, where for centuries, old Jewish manuscripts, mostly in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Judeo- Arabic, including also secular documents and communal records, were deposited. In the 19th century, European scholars became aware of this collection and manuscripts were removed to a variety of libraries in Europe and the United States. This material provides those studying the ancient world and ancient Jewish texts in particular with an amazing treasure of documents, throwing light on the history of the biblical text and its interpretation, the Hebrew language, Greek and Syriac versions of the Bible, Second Temple and Rabbinic literature, Jewish liturgy and the later history—political, economic, and religious—of the Jews in the Mediterranean basin. This material has totally reshaped our understanding of these fields. In the area of Bible, these texts illustrate the manner in which the vocalization and cantillation symbols were developed. Hebrew versions of some important Second Temple literature, later found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, had earlier been discovered in the geniza. Many previously unknown Midrashim and rabbinic exegetical materials have become known only from this collection. This material has provided an entirely new corpus of liturgical poetry.

Article

Pierre Briant

Cambyses (OP Kābujiya), eldest son of *Cyrus (1); acceded on the death of his father (530 bce). He completed his father's grand plan by conquering Egypt, where he was successful in promoting a policy of collaboration with the local élites. The Egyptian documents (Udjahorresnet inscription; Apis sarcophagi) contradict the information collected later by Herodotus on this point. *Babylonia is a good example in showing how Cambyses placed the great sanctuaries under tight control. The news of the revolt of his brother, Smerdis (OP Bardiya), forced Cambyses to leave Egypt in haste in 522; according to Hdt. 3.61–68, he died in Syria. The cult at his tomb in Persis was supplied from government storehouses during the reign of Darius I.

Article

camels  

John Kinloch Anderson

Camels, long domesticated in Arabia and neighbouring lands, were unfamiliar in Anatolia in 546 bce when *Cyrus (1)'s baggage-camels terrified the Lydian horses (Hdt. 1. 80). These may have been two-humped central Asiatic camels like those depicted at Persepolis; the one-humped Arabian camel was more generally known. *Herodotus (3.

Article

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Cappadocia, at one time designated the whole region between Lake Tatta and the *Euphrates, and from the *Euxine Sea to *Cilicia; but the northern part became ‘Cappadocian Pontus’ or simply ‘*Pontus’, and the central and southern part Greater Cappadocia. This last consists of a rolling plateau, almost treeless in its western portion, some broken volcanic areas in the centre and the west (the cone of Mt. Argaeus reaches 3,660 m.: 12,000 ft.), and the ranges, for the most part well watered and well timbered, of the *Taurus and Antitaurus. A rigorous winter climate limits production to hardy cereals and fruits. Grazing was always important; the *Achaemenid kings levied a tribute of 1,500 horses, 50,000 sheep, and 2,000 mules, and Roman emperors kept studs of race-horses there. *Mines are mentioned of quartz, salt, Sinopic earth (cinnabar), and silver. Since the passes were frequently closed in winter the country was isolated.

Article

Caria  

John Manuel Cook, Anna Morpurgo Davies, and Simon Hornblower

Mountainous region inhabited by Carians in SW Asia Minor south of the *Maeander, with Greek cities (*Cnidus and *Halicarnassus) occupying the salient peninsulas and mixed communities on the shores of the gulfs. Until the 4th cent. bce the pastoral Carians lived mainly in hilltop villages grouped under native dynasties (some of which paid tribute to the Athenian empire in the 5th cent.) and organized round sanctuaries, the principal seat being *Mylasa. The Carians claimed to be indigenous; but in Greek tradition they came from the islands, and the interior of Caria is in fact lacking in prehistoric sites. They preserved their language until Hellenistic times. We have some inscriptions (mostly from *Egypt) written in an alphabet, partly of Greek origin, which has recently been deciphered (see next entry); the language seems to be *Indo-European and belong to the Anatolian group. (See anatolian languages; carian language.

Article

Carrhae  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Carrhae (Akkadian Harran, Biblical Haran, mod. Harran, SE Turkey), a city of north *Mesopotamia about 40 km. (25 mi.) south-west of *Edessa, an ancient cult centre of the moon-god Sin. The temple of Sin is first mentioned in a tablet from *Mari of about 1800 bce. It was an important provincial capital, trading-city and fortress in the *Assyrian empire (the last Assyrian king resided there, 612–605(?) bce). The Neo-*Babylonian king Nabonidus (556–539) rebuilt the temple of Sin. A Macedonian military colony under *Seleucid rule, it preserved its name in the Hellenized form ‘Carrhae’ (see colonization, hellenistic). It became part of an independent kingdom *Osroëne (132 bce), often under *Parthian suzerainty. The Roman general M. *Licinius Crassus (1) was defeated by the Parthians near Carrhae in 53 bce. Carrhae was included in the territory annexed as a result of the eastern wars of M.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Carthage (Qrtḥdšt ( = ‘New Town’); Καρχήδων; Carthago), a *Phoenician colony and later a major Roman city on the coast of NE Tunisia.According to tradition (Timaeus, FGrH 566 fr. 60) Carthage was founded from *Tyre in 814/3 bce, but no archaeological evidence has yet been found earlier than the second half of the 8th cent. bce. The site provided anchorage and supplies for ships trading in the western Mediterranean for *gold, *silver, and *tin, and soon outstripped other Phoenician colonies because of its position, its fertile hinterland, and its better harbour.Trade was more important to Carthage throughout its history than perhaps to any other ancient state. Initially most of it was conducted by barter with tribes in Africa and Spain, where metals were obtained in return for wine, cloth, and pottery; but early contact with the Greek world is shown by the presence of Attic *amphorae in the earliest levels at Carthage.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Carthage was founded on part of a large peninsula which stretched eastwards from lagoons into the gulf of Tunis; the isthmus linking it to the mainland further west is c. 5 km. (3 mi.) wide at its narrowest point. Scanty remains of houses of the last quarter of the 8th cent. bce have been found, at one point up to 350 m. (380 yds.) from the shore, suggesting that the settlement then was already of considerable size; but the original nucleus, if there really was a colony here a century earlier to correspond with the traditional foundation date, has yet to be found. Little is known of the archaic urban layout, but surface evidence and cemeteries to the north and west suggest that it covered at least 55 ha. (136 acres). Pottery kilns and metal-working quarters have been identified on its fringes, and the tophet, where child sacrifice to Baal and Tanit took place, has been located on the south; this was in continuous use from the later 8th cent. down to 146 bce.

Article

Ian C. Glover

Port of the Sinae (see seres) near the mouth of the river Cottaris. Marinus of Tyre mentions a sailor Alexander who, in the 1st cent. ce, sailed to Cattigara on a gulf inhabited by fish-eaters (Ptol. Geog 1. 14. 1). No archaeological site can be reliably identified, although Oc-éo near the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam is a candidate.

Article

Chaeremon of *Alexandria (1), where he held a priesthood: Greek writer on Egypt. He taught the young *Nero. His writings treated Egyptian history, religion, customs, astrology, and hieroglyphic writings. A Stoic viewpoint is visible.

Article

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and David C. Braund

A people of the SE coast of the Black (*Euxine) Sea, renowned in legend as the first workers of *iron and as the inventors of steel or carburized iron. Archaeology east of *Trapezus offers some confirmation of iron-working in this part of the Black Sea region early in the second millennium bce.

Article

Chosroes II was one of the most important Sasanian rulers of Late Antiquity. After having prevailed with the help of Emperor Maurice in a civil war against the usurper Bahrām Čōbin, in 591 ce, the king attacked the Roman Empire after the fall of Maurice in 602. By 622, the Persians had conquered Syria and Egypt, but after the failure of the siege of Constantinople in 626, Chosroes, whose empire was attacked in the east by the Turks, was overthrown by dissatisfied aristocrats in 628. After his death, civil wars broke out that decisively weakened the Sasanian Empire in the wake of the Islamic conquests.Chosroes II “the Victorious” (M[iddle] P[ersian] Husrōy Abarwēz)—whose name occurs under the following spellings: Husraw, Khusro, Kisrā, and Khosroes—was the last great king of kings (šāhān šāh) of the Sasanian Empire and, together with the Roman emperor Heraclius and the Prophet Muhammad, one of the towering figures in the turbulent transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages. He was the grandson of Chosroes I Anōširvān (MP Husraw Anušuwān), with whom he often merged into a single figure in the traditions of the East. Born around .

Article

J. H. D. Scourfield

(5th–6th cents. ce), poet from *Coptus in Egypt. All that survives complete is an *ekphrasis on the statues decorating the baths of Zeuxippus in *Constantinople, which in diction and metrical practice shows clear traces of the influence of *Nonnus, and two epigrams. He was, however, a prolific author; lost works include an epic on Anastasius I's Isaurian victory in 497, versified histories (patria) of *Thessalonica, Nacle, *Miletus, *Tralles, *Aphrodisias, and *Constantinople (Suda, entry under the name), and a poem on the pupils of *Proclus (Lydus, Mag. 3. 26). He may have written the fragmentary poems in P. Vienna 29788 A–C.

Article

Cineas (1), (?) Thessalian *founder of *Ai Khanoum (in modern Afghanistan) to whom, as *archēgetēs, *hero-cult was paid, on the evidence of an interesting verse inscription put up at the instance of *Clearchus (3) of Soli.

Article

George Ewart Bean and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Clazomenae (mod. Klazumen), one of the twelve cities of the *Panionium, situated on the south shore of the gulf of Smyrna on a small island joined to the mainland by a causeway. The original settlement was on the mainland, where large numbers of the terracotta *sarcophagi peculiar to Clazomenae have been found. The move to the island came ‘from fear of the Persians’ (Paus. 7. 3. 9), apparently at the time of the *Ionian Revolt (500–494 bce). About 600 bce Clazomenae successfully repulsed an attack by the Lydians under *Alyattes, but later fell to *Croesus. In the *Delian League the city was at first assessed at one and a half talents, but during the *Peloponnesian War this was raised to six and even to fifteen talents; the reason for this is uncertain. By the *King's Peace (386 bce) Clazomenae came under Persian rule, which ended with *Alexander (3) the Great.

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Daughter of *Antiochus (3) III and *Laodice (3) and wife (from 193) of *Ptolemy (1) V Epiphanes. On Epiphanes’ death in 180 bce she acted as regent for her elder son *Ptolemy (1) VI, and on her death four years later, he took the title Philometor (‘Mother-loving’).

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Cleopatra II (c. 185–116 BCE), daughter of *Cleopatra I and *Ptolemy (1) V and both sister and wife of first *Ptolemy (1) VI Philometor (from 175) and then (from 145) his successor (and brother) *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II. Her children (by Philometor) were Ptolemy Eupator, *Ptolemy (1) VII Neos Philopator, *Cleopatra III and Cleopatra Thea, and (by Euergetes) Ptolemy Memphites. Her long life was marked by dynastic strife in which she looked to the population of *Alexandria (1) for support. Supplanted in Euergetes’ affection by her daughter, Cleopatra III, in 132–130 she engaged in a civil war against her husband-brother and his new wife. Euergetes fled to Cyprus with Cleopatra III and although he was back in control from 130 mother and daughter only reached an uneasy reconciliation in 124. The reconciliation of Euergetes and his two wives, Cleopatra mother and daughter, was marked by an amnesty decree in 118 (PTeb.