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Article

The inherent strengths, weaknesses, and availability of diverse Roman building materials governed the techniques used in construction and greatly influenced the final appearance of Roman architecture. Trace archaeological evidence exists of buildings and burials in Rome from the Italian Bronze Age (second millennium bce) or earlier, and substantial physical remains, in the form of Iron-Age huts and grave goods, roughly correspond to the Romans’ own belief of the foundation date of their city (traditionally 753 bce). Rome’s earliest builders sourced materials obtainable from the immediate environment and transformed them using practical knowledge. Within the span of a couple centuries, architectural design, implementation, and decoration reflect a broad interaction between Roman builders and their counterparts in the regions around central Italy (particularly Etruria to the north and Campania to the south) and also the wider Mediterranean world, particularly those areas where Greeks traditionally lived or had placed colonies. While southern Italy and Sicily represent the closest areas for the transmission of Greek ideas, Greek building practices on the Greek mainland and in Asia Minor also influenced Roman projects from the Archaic period onwards. As Rome grew wealthier and expanded abroad, patrons and builders imported marble to the capital from the Aegean, well before the discovery of more local, Italian sources. The importation of exotic stones grew exponentially over the period of the late Republic and the first two centuries of empire. The coloured marbles that embellished the buildings of Rome served as physical testimony to Rome’s control over the eastern Mediterranean. Nothing, however, was as transformative as the adoption of concrete in the late 3rd century bce, the mass production of fired brick, and the ensuing experimentation that resulted in the vaulted structures that have become the hallmark of Roman architecture.

Article

R. J. A. Wilson

A town in the Bagradas valley in North Africa. A large building of c.100/80 bce, a defensive circuit, and burials bear witness to the Numidian period (see numidia), when it was a royal capital (hence Regia); the earliest material goes back to c.300 bce. Later it came within Africa Proconsularis; a *free city under Augustus (Plin. HN 5.22), it received the *ius Latii under Vespasian and became a colony under *Hadrian. Extensive Roman ruins survive, including the forum, temples of *Apollo and *Isis, the theatre, and substantial baths; particularly notable are its many mosaic-paved houses of late-Roman date, some with a complete underground storey to provide a pleasantly cool retreat from the summer heat.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Burdigala (mod. Bordeaux), capital of the Bituriges Vivisci and, eventually, of *Aquitania, was a busy international trading-port (with strong British links). Important remains include an amphitheatre (the ‘Palais-Gallien’), a temple of Tutela, and instructive inscriptions and reliefs. In the late empire a reduced enceinte, c.700×450 m. (765×492 yds.), rectangular with bastions, was built, principally to protect the port. It was the birthplace (c.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Buxentum (mod. Policastro), a Roman colony, founded in 194 bce on the Greek city of Pyxus, itself a colony of *Rhegium. Livy (34. 5. 1, 39. 23. 3) says that it was unsuccessful, despite a second deduction in 186, but archaeological surveys contradict this, showing an intensification of settlement in the region.

Article

Simon J. Keay

Caesaraugusta (mod. Zaragoza), in NE central Spain. An Augustan colonia and early mint with rectangular layout (895m.×513m.: 979×561 yds.) and settled by *veterans of the Cantabrian Wars (IV, VI, and X Legiones; see cantabri). Excavations have uncovered the forum, the theatre, baths, mosaics, and the late Roman walls. Caesaraugusta retained importance in the Visigothic period (see goths).

Article

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, George Ewart Bean, and Stephen Mitchell

Caesarea (1) of Cappadocia (formerly Mazaca, mod. Kayseri) was created by *Cappadocian kings to be their capital. The *philhellene*Ariarathes V gave it a Greek constitution (the laws of *Charondas) and the name Eusebeia by Mount Argaeus, which was changed to Caesarea by *Archelaus (5) in 12–9 bce.

Article

Caesarea (3), mod. Cherchel, on the coast of Algeria. Probably founded as a Punic trading-station, known as Iol, the oldest finds date to c.500 bce. Defences were constructed towards the end of the 3rd cent. bce. Annexed by Rome in 33 bce, it was placed in the hands of the Berber prince *Juba (2) II, who called it Caesarea, and made it into as Graeco-Roman a city as possible (theatre, amphitheatre, street-grid, etc. and a magnificent art collection). See urbanism. In 40 ce, it became the capital of the province of *MauretaniaCaesariensis, and the residence of the *procurator; *Claudius made it a colonia (see colonization, roman). It became a prosperous port town of c.20,000, with a belt of villas around it; its agricultural *mosaics are celebrated. Embellished in Severan times (see rome, history), it had magnificent 4th-cent. houses, and the civic centre was refurbished around the time of the Vandal conquest (429), being abandoned for poor houses only in the period of the Byzantine reconquest (533).

Article

Cales  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Cales (mod. Calvi), an *Auruncan city, c. 47 km. (29 mi.) north of Naples. It was a strategic point, controlling communications between *Latium and *Samnium, and was occupied from the 7th cent. bce. In the aftermath of the Latin War (see latin i), it became a Latin colony (334 bce), counterbalancing Samnite-controlled *Teanum Apulum. It remained an important Roman base throughout the Samnite and *Punic Wars, but was one of the colonies which refused troops to Rome in 209 and was subsequently punished (Livy 27. 9). There was a second colonization in 184 bce, and it remained an important city. The territory was fertile and it was noted for its pottery. The *via Latina ran through the city. There are remains of the walls, theatre, baths, a temple, Roman and pre-Roman street patterns, and numerous burials and inscriptions.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Calleva Atrebatum, mod. Silchester, on the Hampshire–Berkshire border. The Roman town was civitas-capital of the *Atrebates (2) and succeeded an enclosed iron age oppidum. This was founded in the 1st cent. bce and shows a planned layout. The place-name ‘callev’ is given on coins of Eppilus dated to c.ce 10. The land within the late 2nd-cent. earthen defences (rebuilt in stone c.ce260–80) was excavated on a large scale in 1890–1909. Shops, a *dyeing industry, and some 60 houses were exposed, and of public buildings a forum with basilica, baths, a presumed mansio, five small temples, and a possible small Christian church. Recent extensive excavations have exposed extensive iron age deposits beneath the basilica, discovered earlier phases of a timber forum, explored the amphitheatre and defences, and explored the long and complex sequence of occupation in Insula IX. The population was perhaps c.

Article

cameos  

Michael Vickers

Hardstones such as agate or sardonyx, shell, and glass were carved three-dimensionally into vessels, plaques, ring-stones, or pendants so as to take advantage of the contrasting colours of different layers of the material. The technique was first employed in the Hellenistic period, and reached its apogee under the Roman empire. The most elaborate surviving cameos are the Tazza Farnese (in Naples), the Gemma Augustea (in Vienna), and the Cameo of *Tiberius (in Paris); they carry complex figured scenes of a mythological and political nature. The cameo was a much favoured vehicle for portraiture; notable examples are the idealized superimposed heads of *Alexander (3) the Great and *Olympias (or of Ptolemies, see ptolemy (1)) on cameos in Vienna and St Petersburg. Large-scale cameos played a part in the circulation of imperial ideology; smaller ones reveal private devotion to a range of deities, carry scenes of everyday life, or bear inscriptions relating to love or health. Hardstone cameos were intrinsically valuable; less expensive items might be made in layered glass. The Portland vase is the most outstanding extant object in this category. See portraiture, greek; portraiture, roman.

Article

Norbert Hanel

The beginnings of Roman military camps are obscure. Although considerably more recent written sources mention camps being built during the battles with neighbouring towns and tribes as early as the Roman Regal Period, archaeological remains of such installations have only been found since the 2nd century bce, especially on the Iberian Peninsula. Beginning with the early Imperial Period, our knowledge of castra—in various regions of the empire, but also beyond the imperial borders—is considerably greater than during the time of the Republic.The few and scattered written sources deal only marginally with the different functions of the camps. With the help of large-scale excavations and geophysical and aerial photo surveys, it is possible to make a differentiation and functional determination among them. Despite standardisation, no two camps are alike: the well-known rectangular plan with rounded camp corners is only one of the known forms of camp design and organisation (castrametatio).

Article

Penelope Davies

A spacious tract of land outside the original pomerium, often known simply as the Campus, the Campus Martius comprised most of the low-lying plain bounded by the Tiber on the west, the Pincian and Quirinal hills to the east, and the Capitoline hill to the south. Prone to flooding from the river, it was also traversed by streams such as the amnis Petronia, and watered by natural springs. Dedicated to the war god, it took its name from the Altar of Mars. The Campus occupied a special place in Rome’s mythic past, for, according to one tradition, at its lowest point, the palus Caprae, Romulus was enveloped in a dark cloud in front of his assembled troops and lifted to the heavens in apotheosis. Tradition also held that toward the end of the regal period Tarquinius Superbus either took possession of the grassy plain or received it as an honour; upon his expulsion, it was restored to the people as public pasture, ager publicus.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and Martin Millett

Camulodunum (mod. Colchester, Essex). A large area, including the site of the later town, comprised an iron age *oppidum from the Augustan period. It was surrounded by substantial earthworks and was the capital and mint of *Cunobel(l)inus. Captured in *Claudius' campaign of ce 43, a fortress of Legio XX Valeria was constructed beside it, and in 49 a colony (colonia Victricensis) was founded on the site of the fortress. This became the first provincial capital, with the temple of Divus Claudius and a theatre with an adjacent forum. This unwalled town was sacked by *Boudicca in ce 60/1 and was subsequently rebuilt to cover an area of c.43 ha. (106 acres). Its defences were a clay bank to which, it appears, a stone wall was added in the early 2nd cent. Outside the walls was an important Romano-Celtic sanctuary at Gosbecks and a circus. Samian pottery was made in an industrial suburb in the 2nd/3rd cent.

Article

H. Kathryn Lomas

Chief city of *Daunia (Plin. HN 3. 104, Procop. Goth. 3. 18). It was not a Greek foundation (Strabo 6. 3. 7), but there was extensive Hellenization (see hellenism) from the 4th cent. bce onwards, in pottery styles, coinage, and language (Hor. Sat. 1. 10. 30). It became a Roman ally in 318 bce, but revolted during the *Social War (3).

Article

Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with Saturn, and recent archaeological work has revealed occupation dating back to the bronze age. It is best known as the site of the great temple begun by the Tarquins (see tarquinius priscus and tarquinius superbus) and dedicated, in the first year of the republic according to tradition, to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, and Minerva. Given its role as citadel and its religious importance, the hill was seen as a symbol of Roman power. It was successfully defended against the gauls in 390 bce. Here the consuls sacrificed at the beginning of the year and provincial governors took vows before going to their provinces; a sacrifice here was the culmination of the triumphal procession (see triumph).

Article

Capreae  

Nicholas Purcell

Capreae (now Capri), a precipitous small island off the Sirens’ shrine on the Promontorium Minervae of the Bay of *Naples, and part of Naples’ territory until Augustus appropriated it for a luxury estate: wild, secure, remote, and picturesque (the Roman coastal *villas’ architecture made full use of the sheer cliffs, sea-caves such as the Blue Grotto, and views to the mainland). *Tiberius, whose lifestyle during his withdrawal here for most of ce 26–37 was the object of much speculation and anecdote at Rome, developed the estate, building twelve villas named after the gods (Tac. Ann. 4. 67), of which there are important remains at Marina di Capri, Damecuta, and (probably the principal residence, ‘Villa Iovis’) on the easternmost crag. The estate remained imperial, being used for political *exile under Commodus (Cass. Dio 72. 4).

Article

Capsa  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Capsa (mod. Gafsa), an oasis in southern Tunisia. Originally a considerable Libyan settlement (*Jugurtha used it as a treasury: Strabo 17. 3. 12), it was destroyed by C. *Marius (1) in 106 bce (Sall. Iug. 89 ff.). It later revived, becoming a *municipium under *Trajan and subsequently a colonia. Under the Byzantines, it was a centre of defence against the desert nomads, with a fort built by Justinian's general Solomon. The only visible monuments are two pools, dedicated to Neptune and the nymphs. The local museum contains a unique 4th-cent. ce mosaic, an unusually detailed depiction of athletic contests, from a settlement 60 km. (37 mi.) east of Capsa.

Article

Franz A. W. Schehl and John Wilkes

Carnuntum, on the Danube (*Danuvius) between Petronell and Deutsch-Altenburg, was an important Roman military base and the seat of government of *Pannonia (Upper). At first part of *Noricum, Carnuntum was probably added to *Pannoniac. 14 ce when Legio XV Apollinaris was transferred there from *Emona, but the legionary fortress was not constructed until Claudius. Some stone structures probably date from this time (CIL 3. 4591), and some rebuilding appears to have taken place in ce 73–6 (CIL 3. 11194–6). An auxiliary cavalry base was also established in the 60s a short distance to the west. The legion remained at Carnuntum, except for the years 62–71, until c.114, when it was replaced by XIV Gemina Martia Victrix, around whose fortress an extensive *canabae developed. The civil settlement, which lay 5 km. (3 mi.) to the west, became a *municipium (Aelium) under *Hadrian and a colonia (Septimia) under *Septimius Severus.

Article

Jean-Pierre Adam

The skilled work of the Roman carpenter (lignarius or tignarius faber) was essential to the construction of domestic and public buildings, creation of machines and structures for military purposes, and overcoming natural features. Composed in the 1st century bce, Vitruvius’s ten-book illustrated commentary on Roman architecture and architectural techniques, De architectura, comprises the primary textual evidence for the architectural techniques employed by Roman carpenters and engineers. In his various books, Vitruvius discusses the characteristics of different types of wood (supplemented by descriptions in Pliny’s Natural History); machines used on work sites, such as hoists and hydraulic machines; and covering frameworks for houses and the larger spans of basilicas and other massive public structures. For the latter, Roman carpenters devised the triangulated truss, a complex construction corroborated by surviving visual evidence. Archaeological evidence fills many gaps in Vitruvius’s coverage of practical carpentry methods and provides the only extant evidence for woodcutting and finishing implements, such as felling axes and handsaws. Houses at Pompeii and Herculaneum preserve traces of key carpentry techniques: timber framing, stairways, and load-bearing ceiling frameworks. The carpenter’s expertise also extended to shipbuilding and construction of strategic wooden bridges, most notably those erected during military campaigns under Caesar and later Trajan.

Article

Carrara  

T. W. Potter

White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a port. Large-scale quarrying began in the 1st cent. bce. *Mamurra, *Caesar's praefectus fabrum (see fabri), was the first to veneer the walls of his house with Carrara (Plin. HN 36. 7. 48), and may have opened up the quarries for Caesar's building programme, replacing the use of Attic white marbles (see pentelicon). The reconstruction of the *Regia (37 bce) is often regarded as the earliest example of large-scale use of Carrara, and the industry (for buildings, sculpture, and *sarcophagi) reached its peak under Trajan, before giving way to the employment of marbles from the east Mediterranean. It was however partly revived in the 4th cent. ce.