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Aemilius, Marcus, descendant of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (1), whose Gallic connections he inherited. After serving under Cn. *Pompeius Strabo, he was probably aedile in *Sulla's absence, joined Sulla (divorcing a wife related to L. *Appuleius Saturninus), and enriched himself in the *proscriptions. Elected consul 78 bce, with *Pompey's support and against Sulla's wishes, with Q. *Lutatius Catulus (2) as colleague, he agitated against Sulla's settlement and after Sulla's death prepared to attack it. As proconsul he held Cisalpina through M. *Iunius Brutus (1), collected forces in Transalpina, and made contact with *Sertorius in Spain. A catapult projectile found at Calahorra confirms his contact with Sertorius (see APh 79, 2005, no. 9202). Marching on Rome, he was defeated by Catulus and fled to Sardinia, where he was defeated by the legate Triarius and died. His followers, under M.

Article

Geoffrey Walter Richardson, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

(the triumvir), younger son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (2). As praetor 49 bce, he supported *Caesar, naming him to his first dictatorship, then governed Hither Spain (48–7), intervening in the dissensions in Further Spain (see cassius longinus, q.) and returning to triumph. He was consul (46) and Caesar's *magister equitum (46–44). On Caesar's death he gave armed support to M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony), who in return contrived his appointment as *pontifex maximus in Caesar's place. He then left to govern the provinces assigned him by Caesar, Gallia Narbonensis and Hither Spain, the colony Colonia Victrix Iulia Lepida (Celsa) was allowed to preserve the memory of his administration. When, after the war of *Mutina, Antony retreated into Gaul, Lepidus assured Cicero of his loyalty to the republic but on 29 May 43 joined forces with Antony and was declared a public enemy by the senate. At *Bononia (1) in October he planned the Triumvirate with Antony and *Octavian, accepting Further Spain with his existing provinces as his share of the empire; and demanding (or conceding) the proscription of his brother L.

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Aemilius, Marcus, son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3) the triumvir, plotted in 30 bce to assassinate *Octavian on his return to Rome, but was detected by *Maecenas (Vell. Pat. 2. 88 and App. BC 4. 50 216 ff). His wife Servilia, perhaps the Servilia once betrothed to Octavian, committed suicide. Either he or another son of Lepidus the triumvir had earlier been promised to *Antonia (1).

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Aemilius, Marcus, probably elder son of Paullus *Aemilius Lepidus and Cornelia, daughter of *Scribonia and a Scipio. He was consul ce 6, then served under *Tiberius in the Pannonian rebellion (receiving *ornamentatriumphalia in 9), and probably Dalmatia afterwards for a number of years. In 14 he was governor of *Tarraconensis (we do not know for how long) and in 21 he prudently declined the proconsulship and army of Africa, which went to Q. *Iunius Blaesus. He later accepted the proconsulship of Asia, which had no army (probably 26–8). In 22 he resumed the family's restoration of the Basilica Aemilia. He died in 33. *Augustus, on his death-bed, is said to have judged him ‘capable (of becoming emperor), but disdaining it’ (Tac. Ann. 1. 13. 2). Tacitus stresses his prudence and moderation. His children included Aemilia Lepida, wife of Drusus *Iulius Caesar (2)—who in 30 helped to bring about Drusus' fall and committed suicide when accused of adultery with a slave in 36 (Tac.

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Aemilius, Marcus, son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (5), last of the family, married *Iulia Drusilla, was promised the succession by *Gaius (1) (‘Caligula’) and was executed when charged with participation in the conspiracy of Cn. *Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Aemilius Lepidus, Paullus, son of L. *Aemilius Paullus (3), was proscribed in 43 bce (see proscription) and may be the ‘Lepidus’ who won Crete for *Brutus in 42. He later joined *Octavian whom he accompanied in the war against *Sextus Pompeius in 38. He was made suffect consul in 34, then governed either Syria or Macedonia as proconsul, and was made censor 22 with L. *Munatius Plancus, with whom he quarrelled until both resigned. He completed the restoration of the Basilica Aemilia begun by his father. His first wife was Cornelia, daughter of *Scribonia and a Scipio; her premature death is the subject of a consolatory elegy by Propertius (4. 11), which also mentions their two sons, L. *Aemilius Paullus (4) and M. *Aemilius Lepidus (5). He later married the younger Marcella, daughter of C. *Claudius Marcellus (1). He was an augur and perhaps a frater arvalis (see augures; fratres arvales).

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Aemilius Regillus, Lucius praetor in 190 BCE, defeated *Antiochus (3) III's fleet at Myonnesus; he celebrated a naval triumph in 189. During the battle he vowed a temple to the Lares permarini, which M. *Aemilius Lepidus (1) dedicated in 179; the text of the dedicatory tablet, badly corrupted, is preserved by Livy (40. 52).

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John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Robin Seager

Aemilius Scaurus, Mamercus, the last male member of the distinguished family of Aemilii Scauri, was a man of unsavoury character, but a distinguished orator and advocate (Sen. Controv. 10 pref. 2–3; Tac. Ann. 6. 29). Though disliked by *Tiberius, he was a suffect consul in ce 21, but did not govern a province. Twice prosecuted for *maiestas, in 32 and 34, on the second occasion he committed suicide.

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Aemilius Laetus, Quintus praetorian prefect CE 190–3, from Thaenae in Africa. Appointed after the downfall of M. *Aurelius Cleander, Laetus was responsible for L. *Septimius Severus becoming governor of Upper Pannonia in 191. Obliged to attend *Commodus' gladiatorial performances, which aroused increasing alarm, Laetus organized, with Commodus' concubine *Marcia and chamberlain Eclectus, Commodus' murder and replacement by *Pertinax (31 December 192).

Article

Aemilius, Lucius, was consul in 219 bce with M. *Livius Salinator, when they defeated *Demetrius (7) of Pharos in the Second Illyrian War; both triumphed, but when Livius was convicted of peculatus (embezzlement) Paullus came close to sharing his fate. Consul again in 216, he was killed in the disaster at *Cannae. The decision to engage *Hannibal in another pitched battle was taken by the senate and fully supported by Paullus. If there was disagreement between Paullus and his colleague C. *Terentius Varro, it was purely tactical; but Polybius was probably misled by the Scipionic family (Paullus' daughter married *Scipio Africanus) into believing that the decision to engage was taken by Varro against the advice of Paullus.

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Aemilius, Lucius, became an augur in 192 bce and governed Further Spain as praetor in 191, with command prorogued for 190 and 189. A defeat in 190 was retrieved by a victory in the following year. Later in 189 he went to Asia as one of the ten commissioners who administered the settlement after the defeat of *Antiochus (3) III. On his return in 187 he, with a majority of the commission, unsuccessfully opposed the granting of a triumph to Cn. *Manlius Vulso. Despite several attempts he did not reach the consulship until 182, when he operated in *Liguria; his command was prorogued for 181 when, despite having been besieged in his camp, he eventually forced the Ligurian Ingauni to surrender. In 171 he was one of the patrons chosen by the peoples of Spain to represent their complaints against Roman governors. He was elected to a second consulship for 168, and ended the Third Macedonian War by his victory at *Pydna.

Article

Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

Aemilius, Lucius, elder son of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (2) and brother of M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3), the triumvir, accused *Catilinede vi (of violence) in 63 bce. While quaestor in Macedonia in 59 he was absurdly accused by the informer L. *Vettius of conspiring to murder *Pompey. In 56, as curule aedile, he began to rebuild the Basilica Aemilia. He was praetor 53 and consul 50. Previously a consistent *optimate, he was now bought by *Caesar for 1,500 talents which he needed for the basilica, gave him at least passive support in 50, and remained neutral during the ensuing Civil War. During the war of *Mutina he negotiated for the senate with *Sextus Pompeius and later joined in declaring his brother a public enemy; he was named first in the *proscriptions, but allowed to escape. He went to *Brutus in Asia, and continued to live at *Miletus, though pardoned at *Philippi.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux, Robin Seager, and Ernst Badian

Aemilius, Lucius, younger son of Paullus *Aemilius Lepidus and Cornelia, daughter of *Scribonia and a Scipio, and husband of *Iulia (4), was consul in ce 1. Towards ce 8 he conspired against *Augustus and was executed; the engagement between his daughter Lepida and the youthful *Claudius (the future emperor) was broken off in consequence of this and of Iulia's disgrace (later she married a M. Silanus, probably M. *Iunius Silanus (3), the consul of ce 19: for two of their children, ‘abnepotes Augusti’ (‘great-grandchildren of Augustus’), see Tac. Ann. 13. 1).

Article

Aemilius, Marcus, of patrician, but recently impoverished and undistinguished family, according to Cicero had to work his way up like a *novus homo. He amassed wealth (not always reputably), gained the support of the Caecilii Metelli, and became consul (with a Metellus) 115 bce, defeating P. *Rutilius Rufus. As consul he humiliated the praetor P. *Decius Subulo, triumphed over Ligurian tribesmen, and was made *princeps senatus by the censors (one a Metellus) although probably not the senior patrician alive. He also began building a road (*via Aemilia Scauri) linking the *via Aurelia and the *via Postumia. Increasingly powerful in the senate, he married *Caecilia Metella (1) and became the leader of the Metellan family group, then at the height of its glory. Though himself suspect because of his negotiations with *Jugurtha, he became chairman of one of the tribunals set up by C.

Article

Aemilius, Marcus, son of M. *Aemilius Scaurus (1) and *Caecilia Metella (1), hence stepson of L. *Cornelius Sulla. Quaestor under *Pompeyc.65 bce, he intervened in Judaea and Nabataea, chiefly for his personal profit. As aedile 58 he issued coins (RRC422), together with his colleague P. *Plautius Hypsaeus, commemorating his inglorious campaign against the king of the Nabataeans as a victory. He also gave extravagant games, spending his enormous wealth. As praetor 56 he presided over the trial of P. *Sestius, then governed Sardinia (55), where he tried to recoup his fortunes. Prosecuted repetundarum (see repetundae) in 54 (before *Cato (Uticensis)), he was defended by *Cicero and other eminent men and was acquitted. Standing for the consulship of 53, he was accused (like the other candidates) of *ambitus, defended by Cicero, but convicted through the hostility of Pompey, whose divorced wife *Mucia he had married.

Article

Aequi  

Edward Togo Salmon

Aequi, simple Italic tribe inhabiting the valleys of the Himella, Tolenus, and upper *Anio; their dialect probably resembled Oscan (see sabellic languages). Expanding from the highlands towards Latium, by 500 bce they held the mountains behind *Tibur and *Praeneste, and for 70 years, despite their small numbers (Livy 6. 12), they proved even tougher enemies to the *Hernici, Latins (see latini), and Romans than their Volscian allies. They established themselves on the Alban hills and were not expelled until 431 (see algidus). Thereafter, however, Aequi are only casually mentioned until 304, when they apparently occupied their original central Italian area. Rome now almost exterminated them; she established Latin colonies at *Carsioli and *Alba Fucens, gave the surviving Aequi civitas sine suffragio and rapidly romanized them (Livy 9. 45, 10. 1. 9). The Aequian nation thus disappeared, although a municipium Aequiculorum sive Aequiculanorum is still recorded after 90 bce (Plin.

Article

T. W. Potter

Aesernia (mod. Isernia), a strong site near the upper Volturnus river, controlling NW *Samnium. Originally a Samnite town, a Latin colony (see ius latii) established here after the Samnite Wars (263 bce) was staunchly pro-Roman until *Social War (3) insurgents captured it (90 bce) and made it their capital.

Article

Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Equestrian *procurator of *Livia Drusilla, *Tiberius, and *Claudius, came from Gallia Narbonensis (ILS1321, showing him patron of Vaison). As favourite of *Iulia Agrippina, he was appointed sole prefect of the praetorian guard (see praefectus praetorio) by Claudius in ce 51 and retained his post under *Nero. He was Nero's adviser for many years, and, with the younger *Seneca, was responsible for the first period of Nero's government. In 55 he survived an unfounded charge of conspiracy; in 59 he managed Nero's relations with the public after the murder of his mother. He opposed Nero's divorce from *Octavia (3), which only took place after his death in 62. That he was poisoned is asserted by Suetonius and Cassius Dio, but regarded by Tacitus (Ann. 14. 51) as unproven.

Article

Guy Edward Farquhar Chilver and Ernst Badian

Afranius, Lucius, a *novus homo born in *Picenum (ILS878), served under *Pompey against *Sertorius. He was praetor (probably 72 or 71 bce) and proconsul in either Cisalpine or Transalpine Gaul, winning a triumph (Cic. In Pis.58), and again served as a legate of Pompey against *Mithradates VI (66–61). As consul 60 he was overshadowed by his colleague Q. *Caecilius Metellus Celer, and was therefore ineffective on Pompey's behalf. His consular province was one of the Gauls, probably Cisalpina (see cisalpine gaul), but there is no evidence that he ever proceeded to it. From c.53 he governed Hither *Spain as Pompey's legate with three legions, and in 49 commanded at *Ilerda. Pardoned by *Caesar, he returned to Pompey, though charged with treachery by other Pompeians. He escaped from *Pharsalus, but was captured and executed after Thapsus.

Article

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. This covered about 13,000 sq. km. (5,000 sq. mi.) of north and central Tunisia, north-east of a boundary line (the fossa regia, ‘the royal ditch’) from Thabraca to *Hadrumetum; it was governed by a praetor from Utica. Except for *Utica and six other towns of Phoenician origin which had supported Rome rather than Carthage in the Punic Wars, most of the land became *ager publicus. Although the attempt by Gaius C. *Sempronius Gracchus to found a colonia at Carthage failed, Roman and Italian traders and farmers settled in the province in large numbers, and many of C. *Marius (1)'s veterans settled west of the fossa regia. After the battle of Thapsus in 46 bce*Caesar added to the existing province (thenceforth called Africa Vetus, ‘Old Africa’) the Numidian territory of Juba I (Africa Nova, ‘New Africa’).