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Article

David Potter

These are conventionally attributed either to a certain Julian the Chaldaean, who is alleged to have flourished in the reign of *Trajan, or to his son, Julian the Theurgist, who lived in the reign of Marcus *Aurelius and, according to the Suda, was responsible for the rain miracle in Marcus’ German wars. The traditional date in the 2nd cent. ce can be defended only on the dubious assumption that there are two allusions to the oracles in the work of *Numenius, who wrote no later than the second half of the 2nd cent. Otherwise there is no reference to these texts until the late 3rd cent., when *Iamblichus (2) quoted from them in his On the Mysteries of the Egyptians (but cf. Athanassiadi, below).There is considerable evidence in the corpus, and from the way in which the oracles are cited by later Neoplatonists, that the text consisted of a series of oracles spoken by a variety of gods, of whom the most important was evidently *Hecate.

Article

Claros  

David Potter

*Oracle and grove of *Apollo belonging to the city of Colophon. The oracle appears to have been founded by the 8th cent. bce, as stories about its foundation appear in the Epigoni (attributing the foundation to Manto), *Hesiod mentions the site in connection with a contest between the seers *Calchas and *Mopsus, and it is mentioned as a residence of Apollo in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo. The sanctuary was discovered 1907, and an excavation, begun under the direction of Louis Robert in the 1950s, turned up the oracular chamber under the temple and numerous inscriptions relating to its operation. On the basis of these inscriptions and literary texts, we know that there were ‘sacred nights’ upon which the consultations would take place, when there would be a procession of consultants to the temple of Apollo with sacrifices and singing of hymns. Consultants would then hand over questions to the priests who would descend into the adytum (innermost sanctuary), through the blue marble-faced corridors underneath the temple, to a place outside the room in which the divine spring flowed. Within this room the thespiōdos, a man, would drink from the spring and utter his responses to the questions of each consultant.

Article

Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of republican magistracies at Rome. Although in some cases the common status of colleagues did not exclude seniority (originally one *consul may have been superior to the other and the consuls as a whole were senior colleagues of the *praetors), the principle in general was to avoid arbitrary power by ensuring that every magistracy should be filled by at least two officials, and in any case by an even number. They were to possess equal and co-ordinate authority, but subject to mutual control. Thus a decision taken by one consul was legal only if it did not incur the veto (*intercessio) of the other. This principle led to alternation in the exercise of power by the consuls each month. Under the Principate emperors might take as a colleague in their tribunician power (see tribuni plebis) their intended successors, who in many cases were co-emperors.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Hornblower

Three colours are especially important for sacral purposes in antiquity; they are white, black, and red, the last being understood in the widest possible sense, to include purple, crimson, even violet (cf. E. Wunderlich, ‘Die Bedeutung der roten Farbe im Kultus der Griechen und Römer’, 1925 (RGVV 20. 1), 1 ff.).White is in general a festal colour, associated with things of good omen, such as sacrifices to the celestial gods (white victims are regular for this purpose in both Greece and Rome). See for instance Il. 3. 103, where a white lamb is brought for sacrifice to *Helios; the scholiast rightly says that as the Sun is bright and male, a white male lamb is brought for him, while Earth, being dark and female, gets a black ewe-lamb (cf. Verg. G. 2. 146 for the white bulls pastured along Clitumnus for sacrificial purposes). It is the colour of the clothing generally worn on happy occasions (e.g. Eur. Alc.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

The cult of personified harmonious agreement (Gk. *homonoia) within the body politic at Rome (a useful ideological slogan, as for instance concordia of the *senate and *equites in the politics of *Cicero) is an effective diagnostic of its absence. The first temple overlooking the *forum from the lower slopes of the Capitoline was attributed to M. *Furius Camillus as peacemaker in the troubles associated with the Licinio-Sextian legislation of 367 bce (see licinius stolo, c.); a major rebuilding by L. *Opimius in 121 commemorated the suppression of C. *Sempronius Gracchus and his followers, and the grandest rebuilding by *Tiberius (vowed 7 bce, dedicated as Concordia Augusta, ce 10, foreshadowing various usages under the empire, on coins (concordia of provinces, soldiers, or armies) and in municipal contexts (e.g. the monument of Eumachia at *Pompeii) to proclaim loyalty and political acquiescence in difficult times) was intended to celebrate a really elusive solidarity within Augustus' household.

Article

J. Linderski

Roman law (civil and pontifical) distinguished between things belonging to gods and things belonging to humans (res divini and humani iuris); the former were subdivided into res sacrae and res religiosae. A third category was the res sanctae which were quodammodo divini iuris, only in a certain sense governed by divine law (Gai. Inst. 2. 2–10; Aelius Gallus in Festus, Gloss. Lat.382–3; Trebatius in Macrob. Sat. 3. 3). ‘Sacred (sacrae) things’ belonged to a deity; they were transferred from the human into the divine sphere by the twofold act of *dedicatio and consecratio, performed by a magistrate assisted by a pontiff. Things given to gods by private persons the pontifical law did not regard as (technically) sacred (Dig. 1. 8. 6. 3). Furthermore the immobilia (temples, altars) could be consecrated only on ‘Italian soil’ (in agro Italico); in the provinces (in solo provinciali) they were only pro sacro (Plin.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Twelve deities (six male, six female), perhaps those worshipped at the *lectisternium of 217 bce (Livy 22. 10. 9), whose gilded statues stood in the Forum in the late republic (Varro, Rust. 1. 1. 4), like the Twelve Gods whose altar stood in the Agora at Athens. The relationship of these to the modest monument on the slopes of the Capitoline hill, whose rebuilding in ce 367 is recorded in an inscription which calls it the ‘Porticus Deorum Consentium’, is not clear.

Article

Consus  

C. Robert Phillips

A Roman god of the granary (from condere ‘to store’) whose festivals (Consualia) on 21 August and 15 December coincided, respectively, with the gathering of the harvest and the onset of winter. The ancients commonly supposed his name to have something to do with consilium (VarroARD 140 Cardauns). Horses as funerary animals (Gell. NA 10. 15. 3, fasti Praenestini 15 December) were added under Etruscan influence (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2. 31) and led to a misidentification with Poseidon Hippios (Livy 1. 9. 6 with Ogilvie's notes; Latte, RR72). He seems connected with two festivals of *Ops: Opiconsivia (25 August) and Opalia (19 December). Since corn was often stored underground, this may account for his subterranean altar in the Circus Maximus, uncovered only on his festival days (Varro, Ling. 6. 20; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2. 31); for its alleged inscription (Tert. De spect.

Article

Cornelius Labeo (? second half of 3rd cent. ce) wrote a (lost) history of Romano-Etruscan religion, the target of polemic from *Arnobius and St *Augustine.

Article

William Allison Laidlaw, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price

Evidence for the history of the island comes both from literary sources, inscriptions, and coins and from excavation and (increasingly) field survey. The transition from bronze to iron age is still not fully understood, but some sites go back into the Dark Ages (Dictaean cave; the Idaean cave—finds start in the 8th cent.; refuge sites, e.g. Karphi and Vrokastro), but in historical times the island was predominantly *Dorian (Eteocretan, a non-Greek language, was used in places in the Archaic period, and traces survived into the 2nd cent. bce). Cretans prided themselves that *Zeus was born on Crete (see cretan cults and myths), they developed a peculiar temple form, and also eschewed the *hero-cults found on the Greek mainland. Of Homer's ‘Crete of the hundred cities’ over 100 names survive, but there seem to have been in the Classical and Hellenistic periods only about 40 city-states: Archaic Dreros, Prinias, and Axos, and 5th–2nd-cent. Lato, are well known archaeologically; *Cnossus, *Gortyn, and Lyttus were initially the most important, along with Cydonia and Hierapytna.

Article

curses  

H. S. Versnel

A curse is a wish that evil may befall a person or persons. Within this broad definition several different types can be distinguished, according to setting, motive, and condition. The most direct curses are maledictions inspired by feelings of hatred and lacking any explicit religious, moral, or legal legitimation. This category is exemplarily represented by the so-called curse tablets (Gk. κατάδεσμος, Lat. defixio), thin lead sheets inscribed with maledictions intended to influence the actions or welfare of persons (or animals). If a motive is mentioned it is generally inspired by feelings of envy and competition, especially in the fields of sports and the (amphi)theatre, litigation, love, and commerce. Almost without exception these texts are anonymous and lack argumentation or references to deserved punishment of the cursed perso (s). If gods are invoked they belong to the sphere of death, the Underworld, and witchcraft (*Demeter, *Persephone, *Gaia, *Hermes, *Erinyes, *Hecate).

Article

Curtius  

Piero Treves

The hero of an aetiological myth invented to explain the name of lacus Curtius, a pit or pond in the Roman *forum, which by the time of *Augustus had already dried up. Three Curtii are mentioned in this connection: (1) a Sabine Mettius Curtius who fell from his horse into a marsh while fighting against *Romulus;(2) C.

Article

Cybele  

Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid

Cybele (Κυβέλη; Lydian form Κυβήβη, Hdt. 5. 102), the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, associated in myth, and later at least in cult, with her youthful lover *Attis. *Pessinus in Phrygia was her chief sanctuary, and the cult appears at an early date in *Lydia. The queen or mistress of her people, Cybele was responsible for their well-being in all respects; primarily she is a goddess of fertility, but also cures (and sends) disease, gives oracles, and, as her mural crown indicates, protects her people in war. The goddess of mountains (so Μήτηρ ὀρεία; Meter Dindymene), she is also mistress of wild nature, symbolized by her attendant lions. Ecstatic states inducing prophetic rapture and insensibility to pain were characteristic of her worship (cf. especially Catull. 63).

By the 5th cent. bce Cybele was known in Greece; she was soon associated with *Demeter (H. Thompson, Hesp.

Article

daimōn  

H. S. Versnel

Etymologically the term daimōn means ‘divider’ or ‘allotter’; from *Homer onwards it is used mainly in the sense of operator of more or less unexpected, and intrusive, events in human life. In Homer and other early authors, even Olympian gods could be referred to as daimones. Rather than referring to personal anthropomorphic aspects, however, daimōn appears to correspond to supernatural power in its unpredictable, anonymous, and often frightful manifestations. Accordingly, the adjective δαιμόνιος means ‘strange’, ‘incomprehensible’, ‘uncanny’. Hence daimōn soon acquired connotations of Fate. HesiodWorks and Days 122 f., 126, introduced a new meaning: the deceased of the *golden age were to him ‘wealth-giving daimones’ functioning as guardians or protectors (φύλακες). This resulted in the meaning ‘personal protecting spirits’, who accompany each human's life and bring either luck or harm. A lucky, fortunate person was εὐδαίμων (‘with a good daimōn’: already in Hes.), an unlucky one was κακοδαίμων (‘with a bad daimōn’: from the 5th cent.

Article

Dea Dia  

Mary Beard

A goddess worshipped by the *fratres arvales, who celebrated her main festival in May. Her function and character are, in many respects, obscure. The etymology of ‘Dia’ suggests an original connection with the brightness of the sun; but she was also connected with agricultural prosperity.

Article

James Rives

Deae matres, ‘mother goddesses’, whose cult is widely attested in monuments and inscriptions of the Celtic and Germanic regions of the Roman empire, from northern Italy to Britain. Their role as fertility goddesses is suggested not only by their titles but also by their most common attribute, baskets of fruits and other provisions. There was, however, considerable local variation both in epithets and in iconography, indicating that their general character took many particular forms. The most distinctive representation is of a triad, typical of Celtic thought, although individual goddesses, pairs, and groups of four or more are also common. In some cases they are associated with springs, while in others they are depicted nursing infants. The title matronae (‘matrons’) was preferred in northern Italy and on the lower Rhine, while their epithets, found in many parts of the empire, often incorporate tribal or local names. See religion, celtic.

Article

Robert Garland and John Scheid

In the Roman tradition death is conceived of essentially as a blemish striking the family of the deceased, with the risk of affecting all with whom it had contact: neighbours, magistrates, priests, and sacred places. For this reason ritual established a strict separation between the space of the deceased and that of the living. Cypress branches announced the blemished house, and on days of sacrifices for the dead sanctuaries were closed.The time of death spanned above all the period when the deceased's corpse was exposed in his or her home, its transport to the cemetery, and its burial. These operations were usually completed after eight days. The transformation of the corpse was achieved in the course of 40 days. The deceased did not, in the course of the funerary ritual, arrive at life eternal, but joined, as it were, a new category: those members of the community, the di*manes, who lived outside towns on land set aside for this purpose and managed by the pontifices.

Article

J. Linderski

Transfer of a thing from the human into the divine sphere was accomplished through the act of dedicatio and *consecratio, the former indicating surrender of an object into divine ownership, the latter its transformation into a res sacra. Dedications of temples, places, and altars (aedes, terra, ara) were legally binding only if performed by competent authorities:(a) the magistrates with *imperium;(b) with respect to temples, the board of two men acting in their stead (duumviri aedi dedicandae) elected by the people (often appointed as duumvirs were the magistrates who had vowed the temple while in office, or their relatives);(c) the *aediles, but only from the fines imposed by them (pecunia multaticia);(d) any person specifically (nominatim) selected by the people or *plebs, as stipulated by a lex Papiria, perhaps of 304 bce (Cic.Dom. 127–8, 130–6; Att.

Article

H. S. Versnel

Although originally the term had a positive meaning (‘scrupulousness in religious matters’, *Xenophon (1) and *Aristotle), it is predominantly used in a derogatory way and denotes an excessive pietism and preoccupation with religion, first and most explicitly in Theophrastus' sixteenth Character. He defines deisidaimonia as ‘cowardice vis-à-vis the divine’ and gives the following characteristics: an obsessive fear of the gods, a bigoted penchant for adoration and cultic performance, superstitious awe of *portents both in daily life and in *dreams, and the concomitant inclination to ward off or prevent possible negative effects by magical or ritual acts, especially through continuous *purifications. Later, *Plutarch (De superst.) gives largely the same picture, tracing its origin to erroneous or defective knowledge about the gods. This is also the opinion of Roman observers like *Lucretius, *Cicero, and the younger Seneca (L. *Annaeus Seneca (2)), who use the Latin word *superstitio, which *Ennius and *Plautus had already associated with negative notions such as private *divination, *magic, and more generally prava religio (‘bad religion’).

Article

John Scheid

These two words, deriving from the same form (†deiwo-), designate two different types of Roman divinity. A deus (fem. dea, plural divi under the republic) was immortal and had never experienced mortal existence; but a divus—from the beginning of the Principate at least—was a divinity who obtained this status posthumously and by human agency. Although deification is above all a public phenomenon relating to dead emperors and empresses (see ruler-cult), apotheosis existed equally in a private context (Cic.Att. 12. 36. 1; Frei Stolba, JSGU1990, 125 ff.). The Romans believed that the world was full of divinities, living in the skies, on earth, in water, or underground. Some were known and entered into permanent relations with humans, while others did not manifest themselves, although this does not mean that the Romans neglected them: when they needed to invoke all the divinities present in a locality, e.g. for an expiation, these anonymous deities were designated by the title ‘God-or-goddess’ (Sive deus sive dea).