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Apame  

Amélie Kuhrt

Apame, name of several Iranian noblewomen. The best known was the daughter of Spitamenes, a Bactrian-Sogdian noble and opponent of *Alexander (3) the Great. Apame was married to Alexander's Companion (see hetairoi) *Seleucus (1) I at *Susa in 324 bce (Arr. Anab. 7. 4. 6.). She bore him two sons, *Antiochus (1) I and Achaeus. Despite Seleucus' marriage to *Stratonice, daughter of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes, c.300, she retained a prominent position, shown by a Milesian inscription of 299 (IDidyma 480). Several of Seleucus' city-foundations commemorate her, the best known being *Apamea on the Orontes. Recent evidence shows that the name continued to be used in the Seleucid family: Antiochus II named a son Apames (Bab. Apammu, cf. Sachs–Hunger 1989, no. 245).

Article

Apamea  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Apamea, a city on the *Orontes, *Syria, which replaced the Macedonian military colony of Pella. It was founded by Seleucus I (or perhaps Antiochus I). It was the military headquarters of Seleucid Syria, and the place where Seleucid breeding of *elephants (for war) is attested (Strabo 16. 2. 10). During the Principate it ruled a large territory; its citizen population numbered 117,000 under Augustus. Excavation has revealed mainly buildings and finds of the imperial period. See apame.

Article

Apries  

Alan Brian Lloyd

Apries (OT Hophra), a 26th Dynasty pharaoh (589–570 bce) (see saites), campaigned with some success against Phoenician cities and Cyprus with the assistance of Carian and Ionian mercenaries, but his attack on Cyrene was disastrous, leading to a nationalist rising which set *Amasis on the throne. He was killed in an attempt to re-establish himself with Chaldaean help in 567 but was nevertheless buried in the royal cemetery at Sais.

Article

Arabia  

William Woodthorpe Tarn, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Greeks of the Classical period were familiar with the coast of Arabia and with Arabia Petraea. They knew less about the other divisions into which by *Ptolemy (4)'s time they had divided the peninsula—Arabia Felix in the south and Arabia Deserta. The Romans of the empire took account, as the organization of the southern sector of the *limes shows, of the historical role of the Arabs, their steady pressure on the settled lands of the north (see nomads), their infiltration into the Syrian end of the Arabian peninsula, their seasonal movements of *transhumance between the Desert and the Sown.In the north confrontation with, and partial subjection to, the great powers of *Mesopotamia and *Babylonia are attested on the monuments of the Assyrian kings from Shalmaneser III (853 bce) to Tiglath Pileser III (745–727 bce), and Esarhaddon (680–669 bce) and Babylonian Nabonidus visited Taima in person.

Article

Arabs  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Ancient tribes and peoples who lived in, and around the modern Arabian peninsula. The earliest references from the Neo-Assyrian annals and the Bible date back to the 9th–7th cents. bce; there was no relation at that time between the Arabs (sometimes confused with the Aramaeans) and the country of *Arabia. The texts refer to nomadic tribes in the Sinai, in Jordan and Syria, and even along the banks of the Euphrates. *Herodotus (1) was acquainted with the Arabs of southern Palestine and the Sinai, and mentions the Arabs of the frankincense region—the term Arab, meaning ‘shepherd, nomad’, appears in a 6th cent. bce inscription from Yemen. More information comes from *Diodorus (3) Siculus (using *Agatharchides and reflecting the findings of *Alexander (3) the Great's expeditions in the *Red Sea) and *Strabo (using Hellenistic sources and describing *Aelius Gallus' campaign in Arabia under Augustus), who refers to Arabs in Mesopotamia (along the Euphrates), in Egypt (Sinai and Red Sea), southern Jordan (the *Nabataeans) and the Syrian steppe and even in eastern Arabia (the people of *Gerrha).

Article

Aradus  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

The main city of north Phoenicia, on the island of Arwad, whose kings in the 5th cent. bce, allied to the Persians, ruled a large area on the mainland from the plain of Antioch (1) to Simyra: a major sanctuary to Heracles-Melqart and Eshmun stood at Amrith (Marathus). Autonomous under the Seleucids after conquest by *Alexander (3) the Great, the city was organized as a federation, including Antaradus (Tartus), opposite the fortified island (the fortifications are of uncertain date), and its former dominions (Gabala, Carne, Marathus, Simyra). The federation gradually dissolved, but Aradus remained an important harbour for eastern trade. In the mountains are the ruins of the main Aradian high place, the temple of *Zeus Baetocaeces.

Article

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known through royal inscriptions from Syria and was used widely by the Assyrian and Persian administrations (note the *Elephantine papyri). After the fall of the Persian empire Aramaic continued to be used in the Hellenizing cities (see hellenism) of *Palmyra, *Edessa, *Petra, etc. , as well as in the *Parthian east (see hatra). There are many Greek–Aramaic bilingual inscriptions, the best known being the long Palmyrene Tariff. The Edessan dialect of Aramaic, later called Syriac, became the main language of the Christian Church of the middle east. Another late dialect of Aramaic, Mandaic, was used for the sacred writings of the Gnostic pagan sect of the Mandaeans or Sabians in southern Iraq. Modern dialects survive in southeast Turkey/northern Iraq and north of Damascus.

Article

Araxes  

Eric Herbert Warmington

Properly the Armenian river now called Aras, Ras, or Yerash, rising in Bin Geul Dağ, then flowing eastwards across Erzerum and the Mogan Steppe. Until ce 1897 it joined the Kur (ancient Cyrus), but now flows separately into the Caspian. Swift and turbulent now, in Graeco-Roman times it marked a trade-route from the Caspian and the Cyrus to *Artaxata and Asia Minor.

Article

Aretas  

J. F. Healey

Aretas, the name of several kings of the *Nabataeans (Nabataean Aramaic form ḥrtt).

reigned in the early 2nd cent. bce (c.168).

(c.120–96 bce, possibly = the Arab king Herotimus in Justin’s Epitome of Pompeius Trogus) tried to help *Gaza (an important conduit for Nabataean trade) against the attack of Alexander Jannaeus (see hasmoneans), who was defeated by his successor, Obodas I (c.96–85) probably c.93.

‘Philhellen’ (c.84-60/59 bce) also defeated Jannaeus and for some fifteen years occupied *Damascus. He gave refuge to Hyrcanus II in 67 (see hasmoneans) and in 66 besieged Jerusalem, until he was compelled to leave by M. *Aemilius Scaurus (2), who in 62 advanced to Petra but in return for 300 talents of silver recognized Aretas as king of the Nabataeans.

Article

An early member of the Cappadocian ruling house, eldest son of Ariarathes II. It is generally believed that either he or his son *Ariarathes III, whom he appointed joint ruler, was the first to declare *Cappadocia fully independent.

For bibliography, see ariarathes.

Article

B. C. McGing

Ancestral name of the Hellenistic kings of *Cappadocia in Asia Minor. They were an Iranian family claiming descent from *Cyrus (1) the Great, or one of the seven Persians who slew the Pseudo-Smerdis.We know little of the early members of the family, Ariarathes I (d. c.322 bce) and Ariarathes II (d. c.280), but they ruled under Persian and then Macedonian sway, and it was only in the mid-3rd cent. that *Ariaramnes, or his son and co-ruler Ariarathes III (c.255–c.220), was able to declare Cappadocia independent. Ariarathes III married Stratonice, daughter of the Seleucid king *Antiochus (2) II.The link with the Seleucids was strengthened when Ariarathes IV Eusebes (c.220–c.163) married Antiochis, daughter of *Antiochus (3) III, and fought for Antiochus against Rome at the battle of *Magnesia in 190. With the help of his new son-in-law, .

Article

Aricia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Aricia (mod. Ariccia), at the foot of the Alban hills (see albanus mons), 25 km. (16 mi.) south-east of Rome, on the edge of a fertile volcanic depression (vallis Aricina); the impressive viaduct, of Augustan date, which carried the *via Appia across this (Juv. 4. 117) survives. There are traces of early iron age occupation and, c.500 bce, Aricia was temporarily the leading city of *Latium: under Turnus Herdonius it organized resistance to *Tarquinius Superbus, helped *Aristodemus (2) of Cumae to crush the Etruscans (c.505 bce), supplied the Latin League with a meeting-place, and had a prominent role in the Lake *Regillus battle and ensuing foedus Cassianum (499–493). In 446 Aricia quarrelled with *Ardea over boundaries. After participating in the Latin War it received Roman *citizenship (Festus 155 Lindsay represents this, probably inaccurately, as partial citizenship), and became a prosperous *municipium (Cic.

Article

Armenia  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

A mountainous region of eastern Anatolia, north of Syria and Mesopotamia, bounded on the east by *Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan) and on the west by *Cappadocia and *Commagene. The region, known after *Pompey's settlement of Asia Minor as Greater Armenia, was situated east of the upper *Euphrates, and included in the north extensive areas round Lake Van, along the valley of the river *Araxes (which empties into the Caspian Sea), and north to Lake Sevan (south of the river Kur) and the southern borders of the small kingdom of *Iberia (2) in the lower Caucausus. The great altitude of Armenia insulated the country from its neighbours, especially from the Mesopotamian lowlands. The main point of entry from Mesopotamia was in the SW corner (Sophene: southern Armenia) and from the crossing of the Euphrates at Tomisa in SE Cappadocia. The chief importance of this area for the *Achaemenid kings (cf.

Article

Josef Wiesehöfer

The Iranian royal dynasty with its original centre in *Parthiac.250 bce–224 ce. Named after the tribal chieftain Arsaces, who had invaded the former Seleucid satrapy of Parthia from the north and killed the by then independent former *satrap Andragoras. Arsaces' kingly successors later claimed descent from, and political heritage of the *Achaemenids. They successfully drove the *Seleucids from Iran and Mesopotamia and from 92 bce on were neighbours and rivals to Rome on the Euphrates–Armenian border. Despite temporary successes in their fights against Rome and the nomad invasions from the north-east and their—on the whole—prudent policy towards their ethnically, socially, and culturally diverse groups of subjects, their power was again and again threatened or weakened by dynastic conflicts and quarrels with the higher aristocracy, ambitious governors, and ‘vassal’ kings. Although able to secure a status quo in foreign affairs, Arsacid rule in Iran and Mesopotamia was brought to an end by the former petty kings of Persis of the dynasty of the *Sasanids who successfully rebelled against the last Parthian king Artabanus IV.

Article

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Name of two cities in *Commagene:(1) Arsameia by the Euphrates (mod. Gerger);(2) Arsameia by the Nymphaeus (mod. Eski Kahta) identified by remarkable inscriptions (with a rock relief) recording the tomb and cult centre (hierothesion) set up for his father, Mithradates Callinicus, by Antiochus I of Commagene (see antiochus (9); nemrut dağ).

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Arsinoë II Philadelphus (‘Brother-loving’) (c.316–270 bce), daughter of *Ptolemy (1) I and his mistress *Berenice (1), was married first (300/299) to *Lysimachus whom she aided in his bid for the Macedonian throne. Following Lysimachus' death at Corupedium, she next married (281/280) her half-brother Ptolemy Ceraunus; he murdered her younger sons. Arsinoë fled to Samothrace and then to Egypt where (mid-270s) she finally married her full brother *Ptolemy (1) II. This royal couple set a precedent for later Ptolemaic brother–sister marriages (see incest); the dynastic cult they instituted strengthened the monarchy. With the cult title Philadelphus and as one of the Theoi Adelphoi (‘Sibling Gods’) in the Alexandrian dynastic cult from 272/1 bce, Arsinoë was later granted her own priestess (a ‘basket-bearer’, kanêphorus), first certainly recorded for 267/6 bce (see alexandria(1)).

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Arsinoë III (b. c.245 bce), daughter of *Ptolemy (1) III and *Berenice (3) II, married her brother *Ptolemy (1) IV Philopator (see incest). Her murder, during the palace coup in 204, strengthened the opposition to Sosibius and Agathocles.

Article

Arsinoë (1), the capital city of the Arsinoite nome (the *Fayūm), earlier named Crocodilopolis and Ptolemais Euergetis. Originally drained and developed in the Twelfth Dynasty, the Fayūm was again expanded and settled in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. Arsinoë, on the main Fayūm canal, served as administrative and cultural centre. Strabo (17. 1. 38) describes its sacred lake where the cult crocodile Souchos formed a tourist attraction. The élite of Roman Arsinoë, numbering 6,475, enjoyed privileges with administrative responsibilities. The extensive ruins of Arsinoë lie beneath modern Medinet el-Fayūm.

Article

Arsinoë (2), also called Cleopatris, lay near modern Suez where the canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile entered the Red Sea. Despite shoals and south winds, with *Myos Hormos and *Berenice, Arsinoë became an important port for *Red Sea trade. *Trajan's garrison at Clysma stood nearby.

Article

Josef Wiesehöfer

Artabanus II, king of the Parthian dynasty 10/1–38 ce, an *Arsacid on his mother's side, gained the throne in a struggle against Vonones who fled to Armenia. When *Iulius Caesar Germanicus installed Artaxias (Zeno) in *Armenia (18), Artabanus acquiesced and renewed friendship with Rome. After strengthening his rule and his kingdom (a letter of his to Susa survives: see RC 299 ff.) Artabanus challenged Rome by installing his son Arsaces on the Armenian throne (35) and by claiming to be heir to Achaemenian territories in the west (Tac. Ann. 6. 31). Urged by Artabanus' aristocratic opponents, Tiberius replied by encouraging rivals to the thrones of both Armenia and Iran. Artabanus also faced an Iberian invasion of Armenia which he failed to stem, and a revolt of a section of the Parthian nobility which forced him to retire to Hyrcania (36). Later he recovered his power and, in a meeting with L.