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Alexandria (6) ‘among the Paropamisadae’, founded on the strategic site of Begram, about 80 km. (50 mi.) north of modern Kabul. (Also known as Alexandria under Caucasus, see Arrian Anab. 3. 28. 4 and 4. 22. 4, with Bosworth, HCA.)BibliographyP.

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Amaseia  

Stephen Mitchell

Amaseia (mod. Amasya), capital of the kings of *Pontus until soon after 183 bce, birthplace of *Mithradates VI Eupator, and home of the geographer *Strabo, who provides a detailed description of the site (12. 3. 39, 561 C); it lay in a defile of the river Iris between massive heights, with a magnificent fortress commanding the river valley and the chief Pontic roads. It was one of the cities of Pontus founded by *Pompey in 63 bce and the centre of a large territory including the so-called ‘Chiliocomon’, plain of a thousand villages. In 3/2 bce it was attached to the province of *Galatia as the centre of the district called Pontus Galaticus. *Trajan assigned it to *Cappadocia around ce 112. In the 2nd cent. it received the titles *mētropolis, *neōkoros, and first city (of Pontus). It had a strategic position in the road system leading to the NE frontier, became a garrison town, and was an important source of recruits to the legions. The site is still dominated by Hellenistic and Byzantine fortifications, and by the grave monuments of the Pontic kings.

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Amasis  

Alan Brian Lloyd

Became pharaoh (see egypt, pre-ptolemaic; saites) in 570 bce as champion of the native Egyptians against *Apries. Though initially restricting Greek activities (e.g. channelling all trade through *Naucratis), he rapidly came to a rapprochement with the Greek world, allying himself with *Lydia, *Samos, *Cyrene, and perhaps *Sparta, and making gifts to major Greek shrines. This stance was dictated by the rise of *Persia, which overthrew Egypt in 525, shortly after Amasis' death. His long reign was recalled as a time of peace and prosperity attested by numerous great buildings (now largely lost), and Amasis himself was remembered as a great but unconventional and sometimes undignified figure.

Article

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Name or epithet (‘immaculate’) of an Old Iranian goddess. *Artaxerxes (2) II (404–358 bce) is credited with introducing cult-images of her into the empire’s major centres (Berosus in Clem. Al. Protr. 5. 65. 3); his inscriptions (A2Sa, A2Sd, A2Ha) invoke her alongside *Ahura Mazdā and Mithrā (*Mithras). She is not mentioned in the *Persepolis Fortification texts (509–493 bce). In the younger Avesta (Yašt 5) she appears as goddess of fertilizing waters. No certain images of her from pre-Sasanid Iran are known. Her cult, (trans)formed by that of Mesopotamian and Elamite goddesses, spread to *Armenia, *Cappadocia, *Pontus, and *Lydia. In Armenia sacred *prostitution was practised (Strabo 11. 14. 16). In *Lydia she was assimilated to *Cybele and *Artemis, called Artemis Anaitis and Anaitis Meter in numerous monuments and inscriptions, and worshipped in temples at *Sardis, Hierocaesarea, Hypaipa, and elsewhere.

Article

J. David Hawkins

Deities of prehistoric Anatolia may be inferred from such monuments as the painted shrines of neolithic Çatal Hüyük, or the figurines and ‘standards’ of early bronze age Alaca Hüyük, but only with the advent of writing, c.2000 bce, is a more complete picture available. In the Old Assyrian colony period (c.2000–1800 bce), deities appear as figurines or on seals, sometimes as family groups, sometimes as recognizable figures—the weather-god, the hunting-god, the nude goddess, etc. , with their familiar animals, bull, stag, birds, etc. The Hittite kingdom (c.1650–1200 bce) (see hittites) provides the fullest evidence, where the iconography of seals, reliefs, figurines, etc. , is amplified by the extensive texts of the *Hattuša archives relating to mythology and cult. At Hattuša, overlapping pantheons are attested: the autochthonous Hattian, with that of the Hittites evolved locally, and later the imported Hurro-Mesopotamian, which gradually gained ground over the other two. The proliferation of deities reflects the need to create a national pantheon from a multitude of local cults. Weather-gods and sun-gods head the pantheons, followed by such figures as the grain-god, the stag- (hunting-) god, etc. , ending with natural phenomena such as mountains and rivers, etc. Male deities are provided with female consorts, listed separately and not strongly characterized except for an Ištar figure, who may also appear in the male list.

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Ancyra  

Stephen Mitchell

Ancyra (mod. Ankara), a settlement in the part of central Asia Minor occupied by the Galatian Tectosagan tribe, which became the most important city of the province of *Galatia after 25 bce. The Roman city was built on the west side of a strong acropolis, still dominated by fine Byzantine fortifications. Its buildings include the temple of Rome and Augustus, which carries a virtually complete text of the *Res gestae of Augustus (the Monumentum Ancyranum), a theatre, and a large gymnasium of the later 2nd or 3rd cent.

Article

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Amélie Kuhrt

Antioch (1), in *Syria, one of the Seleucid royal capitals, on the left bank of the *Orontes, some 24 km. (15 mi.) from the sea, was founded in 300 bce by *Seleucus (1) I, in a favourable position between his Anatolian and eastern possessions, on the edge of a large and fertile plain. *Seleuceia (2), at the mouth of the Orontes, became its harbour. The king transferred thither the 5,300 Athenian and Macedonian settlers whom *Antigonus (1) I had planted at Antigoneia nearby in 307. His successors enlarged the city. Nothing of Seleucid Antioch survives. It was laid out on a grid plan (see urbanism) and contained a large Aramaic-speaking, as well as a Jewish, community, whose privileges were said to go back to Seleucus I. After an interlude of Armenian rule (83–66 bce) it was annexed by *Pompey (64 bce) and became the capital of the province of Syria; it was made an autonomous city by Caesar (47 bce).

Article

(Pisidian, or more correctly ‘near Pisidia’), a city in Phrygia Paroreius north of *Pisidia, to be distinguished from the other Phrygian Antioch on the Maeander. It was a Seleucid; Fraser, GET, 328 f. foundation, peopled by colonists from *Magnesia (1) on the Maeander, occupying a strong site in the foothills of Sultan Dağ close to modern Yalvaç. Its fertile territory extended east to Lake Eğridir. The principal Hellenistic remains are at the nearby hill-top sanctuary of *Mēn Askaēnos, where there is an Ionic peripteral temple of the 2nd cent. bce. The temple estates were used to provide land for Roman *veterans of Legions V and VII when the city was refounded as Colonia Caesareia after the creation of the province of *Galatia in 25 bce. It was linked with the other Augustan colonies of the region and with the south coast by a military road, the *via Sebaste.

Article

Eric Herbert Warmington and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Antioch (3) Margiana (southern Turkmenistan, 30 km. (18 mi.) east of modern Merv), situated in the narrow, fertile valley of the Murghab river, separated by the Kopet Dağ mountains on the west from *Parthia and bounded in the north by the Karakum mountains. Routes to it led from Aria (Herat) and from *Bactria, and thence to central Asia. *Antiochus (1) I (Strabo 11. 10. 2) reconstructed a foundation of *Alexander (3) the Great in the settlement area of the Achaemenid period. Soviet excavations revealed something of the layout of the site (Gyaur-Kale), which had been refounded in a large quadrangular pattern, crossed by two principal streets, intersecting at right angles; the Achaemenid citadel was taken within the fortification and seems to have served as the citadel of the new foundation. The excavations also discovered large sections of the surrounding walls, described by Strabo, though the date, Seleucid or Parthian, is at present uncertain. See urbanism.

Article

William Woodthorpe Tarn and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Antioch (4) -Persis, probably mod. Bushir, on the Persian Gulf, or perhaps Achaemenid Taoke (mod. Borazjan, 32 km. (20 mi.) from Bushir, on the main route inland to Shiraz and *Persepolis). Probably founded by *Seleucus I, it was recolonized by *Magnesia (1) ad Maeandrum for *Antiochus (1) I (OGI 233).

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (3) III Megas (the Great (c. 242–187 BCE), second son of *Seleucus (2) II, king of the *Seleucid empire (222–187). After the assassination of his elder brother, *Seleucus (3) III, who was childless, he was called from *Babylon to *Antioch to be king. From the outset he faced many problems within the empire: in the east, a rebellion in *Media led by the satrap Molon (222), with the support of the satrap of Persis, Alexander (brother of Molon); Molon invaded Babylonia, seized the royal capital, *Seleuceia (1) on Tigris, and took the title ‘king’. In the west, *Achaeus (3), viceroy of Seleucid Asia Minor, was in revolt and in control of the royal capital of *Sardis. The Ptolemies still retained control of *Seleuceia (2) -Pieria in north Syria.Within the next 25 years, Antiochus put down the revolt of Molon (220) (Polyb.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (1) I Soter (Saviour (c. 324–261 bce), king of the Seleucid empire (281–261) eldest son of *Seleucus (1) I and the Bactrian *Apame, co-regent with Seleucus I (294–281); given responsibility for the ‘Upper Satrapies’, when he married Seleucus' second wife, *Stratonice, daughter of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes. This apparent division of royal power (coins from the eastern satrapies, e.g. *Bactria, were still minted under the names of both Seleucus and Antiochus, and in inscriptions Seleucus' name took precedence) perhaps indicates both Seleucus' perception of the importance of the eastern part of the empire and of the need for royal authority there, and also of Antiochus' potential acceptability there as a half-Iranian king.Antiochus was, with Seleucus I and *Antiochus (3) III, one of the most dynamic and successful of the Seleucid kings and played a crucial part in consolidating the empire, both territorially and institutionally. His huge colonizing and consolidating activity through the Seleucid empire, apart from many city foundations in Anatolia, include in the east, the oasis city of *Antioch (3) (Strabo 11.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (2) II Theos (God) (286–246 bce), king of the *Seleucid empire (261–246), second son of *Antiochus (1) I and *Stratonice, co-regent with his father since 268. Married *Laodice (2) 267, who bore him *Seleucus (2) (II) and *Antiochus (8) Hierax. In the ‘Second Syrian War’ (260–253) he tried to gain southern Syria, Palestine, and Phoenicia from *Ptolemy (1) II unsuccessfully, but maintained Antiochus I's possessions in Asia Minor, though facing the independent development of the kingdom of *Pergamum. Peace was consolidated by his marriage to *Berenice (2), daughter of Ptolemy II (253), which led to war with Egypt at the accession of Seleucus II. Antiochus granted estates to Laodikce in Asia Minor (I Didyma II 492) and Babylonia (‘Lehmann Text’), which benefited cities.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (7) VII Sidetes ( = from *Side) (c. 159–129 bce), last great king of the Seleucid empire (138-129) second son of *Demetrius (10) I, succeeded his brother *Demetrius (11) II, who had become a prisoner in Parthia (138). He quickly defeated and killed the pretender Tryphon in *Antioch (1) (138), reconquered Palestine (135–134) and recovered *Babylonia from Parthia (130), was welcomed by the Greeks, but defeated and killed in 129 in Media. Babylonia was lost to the *Seleucids for good.

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Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (6) VI Epiphanes Dionysus, rival king of the Seleucid empire (145/4–141/0 bce), infant, son of *Alexander (10) Balas. He was put forward by the general Diodotus (later called Tryphon) against *Demetrius (11) II and conquered Antioch. Tryphon soon deposed and killed him (141/0), and reigned afterwards as king until 138, when he was defeated by *Antiochus (7) VII.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (4) (Manifest God) (c. 215–164 bce), original name Mithradates (Livy 33.19), king of the Seleucid empire (175–164), third son of *Antiochus (3) III, hostage in Rome since 189, succeeded his brother *Seleucus (4) IV with the help of *Eumenes II of Pergamum. His attempt to incorporate Ptolemaic Egypt and Cyprus (‘Sixth Syrian War’ 171–168) failed because Rome's victory over *Perseus (2) of Macedon enabled Rome to order Antiochus from Egypt (see popillius laenas, gaius). After this (168) he plundered *Jerusalem, rescinded the charter of Antiochus III, forbade the Jewish religion, and installed a cult for Zeus Olympios ( = Syrian Ba`al Shamîn?). This led to the Maccabean revolt (*Maccabees). In March 164 he lifted the ban on the Jewish religion (2 Macc. 11: 27–33). Antiochus was famous in Antiquity for his promotion of Greek culture (Tac. Hist 5.

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Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (5) V Eupator (with a good father) (c. 173–162/1 bce), king of the Seleucid empire (164-162/1), infant, son of *Antiochus (4) IV, reigned less than two years through the regent Lysias, and was put to death in *Antioch (1) when *Demetrius (10) I seized the throne.

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Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (8) Hierax (c. 263–226 bce), second son of *Antiochus (2) II and *Laodice (2), brother of *Seleucus (2) II, became independent ruler of Seleucid Anatolia when his brother fought the ‘Third Syrian War’ (246–241). He defeated Seleucus' attempt to recover Anatolia (‘War of the Brothers,’ c.239–?), allying himself with traditional enemies of the Seleucid dynasty, Pontus, Bithynia, and Galatians, and marrying a Bithynian princess, daughter of Ziaelas and sister of *Prusias (1) I. The Galatian alliance, however, embroiled him with the rising power of *Attalus I of Pergamum, who drove him from Asia Minor (230–228). After an unsuccessful attempt to raise Syria and the east against Seleucus, he became an exile (227) and was murdered in Thrace.

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Aornos  

Pierre Briant

Aornos, a mighty ‘eagles' nest’ in the land of the Assacenae, located by Sir Aurel Stein at Pir Sar, beside a bend of the upper Indus on the border of Swat. Two great ridges, Pir-Sar and Una-Sar, converge at right angles; the ‘rock’ is Bar-sar ib Pir-Sar, cut off from the Una ridge by the Burimar ravine. The inhabitants of the surrounding towns (Massaga, Bazira, Ora) took refuge here. *Alexander (3) the Great took it by assault in spring 326 bce, though according to tradition the local *Heracles had failed to do so (Arr.

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apadana  

Michael Vickers

Apadana, ‘the public part of a royal palace’. Only attested at Susa, the Old Persian word is usually applied to the large multi-columned halls in the palaces at *Susa and *Persepolis, perhaps linked to the earlier architectural style of the Zagros (e.g. Hasanlu).