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Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Volaterrae (Etr. VelaθRi; mod. Volterra), one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and capital of the mineral-rich zone of central Tuscany, was established in Villanovan times on a hill dominating the Cecina valley. It is notable for its 4th-cent. walls with arched gates. Volaterrae produced distinctive Archaic and Hellenistic votive bronzes, early stone funerary stelae, (late) red-figured and black-glazed pottery, and carved alabaster ash urns: 109 of the latter were found in a circular chamber-tomb, ranging in date from the late 4th to the 1st cent. bce. The city withstood a two-year (82–80 bce) siege by *Sulla's army, and subsequently became a colony for his veterans; *Cicero defended a native of Volaterrae against the loss of his rights of citizenship (Cic. Caecin.).

Article

Christian James Fordyce and M. Winterbottom

Declaimer from *Pergamum and pupil of *Apollodorus (5). L. *Annaeus Seneca(1), who criticizes him for excessive use of figures (Controv.10 pref. 10), records (ibid. 2. 5. 13) that, after being convicted for poisoning in Rome, he taught at *Massalia (Marseille). He left his money in gratitude to that city (Tac. Ann.

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

Early 1st cent. bce, author of a work De poetis (‘On Poets’) in iambic senarii, of which the largest surviving fragment (quoted by Gell. NA 15. 24) ranks ten authors of fabulae palliatae in order of merit: *Caecilius Statius, *Plautus, *Naevius, *Licinius Imbrex, *Atilius, *Terence, *Turpilius, *Trabea, *Luscius, *Ennius.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Volcanus (VolkanusVulcanus), an ancient Roman god of destructive, devouring *fire, in both the human environment and in nature: e.g. in volcanoes (see Strabo 5. 246 for his worship at the Solfatare of *Puteoli, and Plin. HN 2. 240 for fire coming out of the ground near *Mutina), which explains why his temple should always stand outside a city (Vitr. 1. 7. 1), on the authority of the *Etruscan*haruspices. He was associated with *Maia(2) (Gell. NA 13. 23. 2 ‘Maiam Volcani’), the goddess of the irrepressible development of the fire, and was worshipped at Rome from the earliest-known times, having a flamen (see flamines) and a festival, the Volcanalia, on 23 August (calendars). His shrine, the Volcanal, stood in the Area Volcani in the *forum Romanum at the foot of the *Capitol; it may therefore go back to a time when the Forum was still outside the city (see F. Coarelli, Il Foro Romano, 1: Periodo arcaico (1983), 164 ff.

Article

Volcei  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Volcei (mod. Buccino), in south Italy, Lucanian city (see lucania) near the Valle di Diano. It was inhabited from the bronze age, and prominent under Roman rule. It entered alliance with Rome c.327/6 bce, but revolted during the Hannibalic War (see punic wars). By resuming alliance with Rome voluntarily in 209, it escaped punishment, and later became a *municipium, absorbing several neighbouring settlements (Plin.

Article

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Barbara Levick

King of *Parthia, 51 ce/2–79/80. His family belonged to *Media Atropatene. Much of his reign was spent in wars with Rome and on his eastern frontier. In 54 Vologeses set his brother *Tiridates(3) on the throne of *Armenia (Tac. Ann. 12. 50). Cn. *Domitius Corbulo, sent to re-establish Roman influence, was at first successful, Vologeses being occupied on his eastern frontier with a rebellion. Tiridates fled, and a Roman nominee *Tigranes(4) was crowned as king of Armenia. But Vologeses returned to the war, and at one time gained an advantageous treaty from L. *Caesennius Paetus, after the latter's capitulation at Rhandeia. Finally, peace was made and Tiridates agreed (63) to go to Rome and pay homage to *Nero for his throne: this he did in 66. Vologeses' later relations with Rome were friendlier: he sought *Vespasian's help against the invading Alani (Suet.

Article

Volsci  

Tim Cornell

Volsci, people of ancient Italy. The Volsci first become prominent in ancient historical narratives of the early 5th cent., when they overran southern *Latium and occupied the Monti Lepini, most of the Pomptine plain, and the coastal region from *Antium to *Tarracina. That the Volscian presence in this area was a new phenomenon is suggested by the traditional accounts of Roman hegemony in southern Latium in the late 6th cent., itself confirmed by the text of the first treaty between Rome and *Carthage (Polyb. 3. 22, 509 bce). The story of *Marcius Coriolanus also points to a vigorous Volscian offensive at this time, and recent excavations at *Satricum (1) (Lat. Pometia), indicate changes in the early 5th cent. which can be explained by the arrival of new people. Satricum became one of the chief Volscian centres; others were Ecetra, Antium, *Velitrae, *Circeii, and Tarracina (which they renamed Anxur).

Article

D. W. R. Ridgway

Veteres, one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), may safely be equated with medieval and modern Orvieto and its temples (notably Belvedere, of *Vitruvius' Tuscan type), painted tombs, and 6th-/5th-cent. Cannicella and Crocefisso del Tufo cemeteries. The latter are laid out in well-planned ‘streets’ of built chambers; epigraphy attests 90 prosperous families at Crocefisso del Tufo between 550 and 500 bce, among them Italic foreigners and at least one Celt. The survivors of the Volsinian rebellion of 264 bce were resettled by Rome at Volsinii Novi (Zonar. 8. 7. 8), identified with the late republican centre excavated (1946 onwards) near Bolsena by the École Française. The original Volsinii was traditionally associated with the federal sanctuary of the twelve Etruscan cities known as the Fanum Voltumnae (Livy, 4. 60. 9–5. 1): see voltumna; this continues to elude archaeological definition.

Article

John Scheid

Voltumna, an Etruscan goddess, at whose shrine the Etruscan federal council met (Livy, 4. 23. 5; 25. 7; 61. 2; 5. 17. 6; 6. 2. 2; cf. CIL 11. 5265 and J. Gascou, Mélanges d'arch. 1967, for the survival of these meetings.). Nothing more is known of her and the site of the shrine is uncertain (see volsinii).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Volturnus, the principal river of *Campania, a considerable stream often mentioned in ancient accounts of Samnite and Hannibalic Wars (see samnium; punic wars). It rises in Samnium and flows southward past *Aesernia, *Venafrum, and *Allifae until joined by its tributary, the Calor, whereupon it turns abruptly westward to enter the Tyrrhenian sea about 32 km. (20 mi.) below *Casilinum.

Article

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Volubilis (mod. Oubili), a town in the Djebel Zerhoun plain in Morocco, 20 km. (12 mi.) north of Meknes. Already in existence in the 4th or early 3rd cent. bce, it soon became thoroughly Punicized, with suffetes as chief magistrates (see carthage). The 2nd- and 1st-cent. bce town already covered some 15 ha. and had a regular street grid. It particularly flourished as the western capital of *Juba II; two temples under the later forum, and a monumental altar under the capitolium (see capitol), belong to this phase. It was rewarded by *Claudius with the rank of *municipium for supporting Rome against Aedmon's rebellion. Thereafter expansion was rapid. The forum is probably Neronian (i.e. ce 54–68, see nero), the two sets of baths are both Flavian in origin, and two street grids with different orientations in the north and north-eastern quarters are both now known to date from before the end of the 1st cent. The city walls (2.35 km. (1.5 mi.) long, with eight gates), enclosing an area of c.

Article

Marilyn B. Skinner

Volumnia Cytheris, a freedwoman of P. Volumnius Eutrapelus, was a celebrated mime actress (see mime, roman), notorious during the 40s bce for her affairs with prominent political figures. Her lovers included Mark Antony and C. Cornelius Gallus, the inventor of Roman love elegy, who celebrated her under the pseudonym “Lycoris” in four books of amatory verse (Serv. ad Verg. Ecl. 10.1 and 6). According to a late source (De vir. ill. 82.2) she was also the paramour of the tyrannicide M. Iunius Brutus (2). All three men were, like Eutrapelus, at one time adherents of C. Iulius Caesar (2), and her association with them may have furthered her former owner’s ambitions.1 While the name “Cytheris,” alluding to Venus’s birthplace, sexualizes its possessor and is thus a suitable appellation for a stage performer, “Lycoris,” reminiscent of a cult title of Apollo, transports her into the realm of literature.

Article

M. T. Griffin

A philosopher who accompanied *Brutus in his campaign against the triumvirs (see triumviri). He recorded, perhaps in a biography, prodigies (see portents) which preceded Brutus' last battle (Plut. Brut.48).

Article

Tony Honoré

Lucius Volusius Maecianus, a lawyer of the mid-2nd cent. ce, probably came from *Ostia, where inscriptions recording his career have been found. He became a libellis (secretary for petitions) to *Antoninus Pius in *Hadrian's reign, and about ce 150 returned as a libellis to Pius, now sole emperor, then became praefectus annonae (prefect of the corn supply) and in 160–2 governor of Egypt. He taught Marcus *Aurelius, even writing a book on fractions and measurements for him, but failed to impress the future emperor. He seems to have written in Greek on the Rhodian sea law; and his fourteen books (libri) on Iudicia publica (‘Serious Crimes’) broke new ground on a scale never later reached, as did his sixteen books on Fideicommissa (somewhat resembling trusts). (PIR2 5. 657.)BibliographyRealencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, s.

Article

Ernst Badian

Orator from *Narbo. Although L. *Annaeus Seneca(1), Controv.9, pref., assigns him a long speech explaining why he never took part in *declamations, numerous extracts, chiefly from the same book, show him taking an active part in controversiae. Mam. *Aemilius Scaurus called him the *Ovid of orators, because he would never let well alone.

Article

Irad Malkin

Votive offerings are voluntary dedications to the gods, resulting not from prescribed ritual or sacred calendars but from ad hoc vows of individuals or communities in circumstances usually of anxiety, transition, or achievement. Votives display a considerable number of constant features in both Greek and Roman religions. Dedications consisted in renunciation and long-term symbolic investment in the divine, in expectation of good things to come. Unlike *sacrifice, where one ‘destroys’, by depositing a perceptible object in a sanctuary one both loses it and makes it eternal. One of the primary functions of *temples was to house expensive dedications; the temple itself was a communal dedication, anathēma, to the god (cf. Plut. Per.12, 14).On a personal level, just like prayers, votive offerings emphasize the individual's ‘if–then’ relations with the gods. The gift to the sanctuary both mediates and serves as testimony to the occasion of the vow. ‘If my ship arrives safely, if I recover from illness, if my crop succeeds, etc.…I shall dedicate a statue, a *tithe, a temple’, and so on.

Article

votum  

H. S. Versnel

A vow. Both Greeks and Romans habitually made promises to gods, in order to persuade them to grant a favour stipulated in advance. If the gods fulfilled their part, the vow-maker fell under the obligation to do as he had promised. Although the practice was no less popular in Greece, the vow developed an institutional form especially in Rome, owing to the practical and juridical aspect of Roman religion. Expressions such as v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘NN has paid his vow with pleasure and deservedly’), mainly in private votive gifts, and voti reus, voti damnatus (‘obliged to fulfil his vow’), mainly in public vows, belong to the fixed formulas. In the private sphere *prayers for recovery and good health, crops, childbirth, safe return from an expedition, etc. were, in case of fulfilment, answered by a great variety of *votive offerings. In public votive religion it was the magistrate who in the name of the state undertook to offer to a god or gods sacrifices, games, the building of a temple or an altar etc. , if the god on his side would give his assistance in such basic collective crises as war, epidemics, and drought. Formulas had to be pronounced in public and were very strict: mistakes required the repetition of the whole ceremony. In addition to these extraordinary vows there were also regular vota, pronounced for a definite period: e.

Article

Vulci  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Vulci (Etr. Velχ-), 20 km. (12½ mi.) north-west of *Tarquinii in central Italy, situated on a plateau overlooking the river Fiora and with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa, was one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans). It was an important centre by the late 8th cent. bce, rich in painted pottery and bronze; its *orientalizing period has much in common with that of *Vetulonia. From the late 7th cent., Vulci was the centre of schools of stone-carving, vase-painting, and of the manufacture of bronze utensils that were widely exported. Official and clandestine attention has been mainly concentrated on the tombs, dating from the Villanovan period onwards (see villanovan culture), several thousands of which had been emptied by the mid-19th cent.: Vulci was the principal importer to Etruria of Attic black- and red-figure vases (see pottery, greek).

Article

Roger Wright

The language of the Roman Empire, spoken and written, was Latin. Like all languages spoken over a wide area for a long time, it varied greatly. Since the arrival of sociolinguistics in the 1960s, it has been accepted that such variation is in no way unnatural or sinister, and the flexibility it implies is often an advantage rather than a problem. But standardization of the Latin language was taken seriously, particularly within the traditions established by Aelius Donatus in the 4th century and Priscian in the 6th, with the result that eventually features of the language that did not accord with the precepts of these authorities were regarded as not just different but wrong. The concept of Vulgar Latin has been defined in a variety of different ways, but József Herman’s definition, as a label for all those features of Latin that we know existed, but which were not recommended by the grammarians, is probably the most useful; its meaning has thus usually been defined in opposition to that of another concept of dubious value, Classical Latin, the Latin of the grammarians (see grammar, grammarians, Latin).

Article

Vulgate  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Latin version of the Bible. The first Latin translations of Scripture (Vetus Latina, Old Latin) began to appear in the 2nd cent. ce. By the late 4th cent., the situation was chaotic: some books existed in more than one version, while some versions were subject to considerable local variation. An attempt to impose order was made in the early 380s by Pope Damasus, who commissioned Jerome to revise the Latin text of the Gospels, and perhaps of the whole of the Bible, in the light of the Greek. The gospel revision was completed in 384, and during his early years in the Holy Land (386–c.390) Jerome went on to produce Latin versions of the Psalter (the ‘Gallican Psalter’) and of other books of the OT (Old Testament) on the basis of the LXX (see septuagint). But around 390 Jerome became convinced of the need for a translation of the OT based on the Hebrew text used in Jewish communities, from which the LXX sometimes differed significantly. This immense undertaking, which occupied him for some fifteen years, resulted in a completely new translation of the Hebrew books of the OT, carried out on the basis of the original and with the aid of the Greek versions of Aquila and Symmachus. At the request of friends, and with the assistance of an interpreter, he also translated from the Aramaic the books of Tobit and Judith, which he did not recognize as part of the canon.