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Crates (1) Athenian comic poet, won three victories at the City *Dionysia, the first almost certainly in 450 bce (Jer. Chron. Ol. 82. 2, IG 22. 2325. 52); he was an actor before he was a poet (Anon. De Com 9. 8. 7). We have six titles. Animals depicted a situation in which animals refuse to be eaten by men. (See animals, attitudes to.) It seems to have contained a comic prophecy of an era in which all work will perform itself (see metagenes and Pherecrates). *Aristophanes (1) (Eq. 537 ff.) speaks of him affectionately, and *Aristotle (Poet. 1449b7) says that he was the first to discard ἰαμβικὴ ἰδέα and create plots which were ‘general’ (καθόλου), i.e. to advance beyond the ridiculing of real individuals.

PCG 4. 83 ff.

Article

Crates (2), of *Thebes (1) (c.368/365–288/285 bce), *Cynic philosopher and poet. Moving to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of *Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he maintained Diogenes’ philosophy is disputed. He claimed to be ‘a citizen of Diogenes’ and espoused a similar cosmopolitanism; notoriously enacted Diogenes’ prescriptions regarding free and public sex in his relations with Hipparchia, with whom he shared a Cynic way of life; and often expressed ethical sentiments as extreme and intolerant as Diogenes'. But he did not insist on the complete renunciation of wealth or that everybody should become a Cynic, and he conceded a certain legitimacy to existing occupations; and the deployment of his considerable charm and kindliness in proclaiming his message, comforting the afflicted, and reconciling enemies, won him the titles of ‘door-opener’ and ‘good spirit’ and a reputation for humanity which endured throughout antiquity. Granted their obvious differences in personality and missionary approach, Crates seems himself to have followed Diogenes rigorously, while (sometimes) allowing greater latitude to others. This partial moral relativism makes him the link between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ Cynicism (there are clear Cratetean elements in *Lucian's Demon.

Article

Peter Barr Reid Forbes, Robert Browning, and Nigel Wilson

Of Mallus, son of Timocrates, was a contemporary of *Demetrius (12) of Scepsis (Strabo 14. 676) and *Aristarchus (2). He visited Rome as envoy of *Attalus II of *Pergamum, probably in 159 bce, when his lectures, during his recovery after breaking his leg in the *Cloaca Maxima, greatly stimulated Roman interest in scholarship (Suet.Gram. 2; see, however, Walbank, HCP 3. 415: the king may have been *Eumenes (2) II and the date 168). He may have helped king Eumenes II organize the library at Pergamum. He was mainly interested in *Homer, but we have no list of his writings. He also concerned himself with *Hesiod, *Euripides, *Aristophanes (1), and *Aratus (1), and laid claim to the title of κριτικός (‘critic’), which implied vastly wider interests than those of γραμματικός (‘grammarian’). Strabo 2. 5. 10 reports that he constructed a sphere to represent the world, on which the map of the land mass could be shown.

Article

Kenneth Dover

Cratinus was regarded, with *Aristophanes (1) and *Eupolis, as one of the greatest poets of Old Attic Comedy (see comedy (greek), old). He won the first prize six times at the City *Dionysia and three times at the *Lenaea (IG 22. 2325. 50, 121). We have 27 titles and over 500 citations. The precisely datable plays are: Cheimazomenae at the Lenaea in 426 bce (hyp. 1 Ar. Ach.), Satyrs at the Lenaea in 424 (hyp. 1 Ar. Eq.), and Pytine at the City Dionysia in 423 (hyp. 6 Ar. Nub.). Three more are approximately datable: Archilochi treats (fr. 1) the death of *Cimon as recent, and therefore comes not long after 450; Dionysalexandros (see below) attacked *Pericles (1) for ‘bringing the war upon Athens’, and must belong to 430 or 429; and fr. 73 Thraltae suggests that Pericles has just escaped the danger of *ostracism (444/3).

Article

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

*Epigrammatist from *Mytilene. Mytilenean inscriptions document three embassies in which Crinagoras participated, to Caesar in 48/7 and 45 and to Augustus in 26/5 bce. The dates of his epigrams range between 45 bce and ce 11 and perhaps 15. Evidently he lived to a considerable age. M.

Article

Crito (2), one of the latest poets of New Comedy (see comedy (greek), new); he won second prizes at the *Dionysia in 183 and 167 bce (IG 22. 2321. 151, 210 = 3 B 3 coll. 3b. 5, 4a. 21 Mette). From his Φιλοπράγμων (‘Busybody’) an eight-line fragment (3) survives, in which the Delians (see delos) are called ‘*parasites of the god (i.

Article

Martin Litchfield West

Cynaethus, of Chios, according to schol. Pind.Nem. 2. 1, was prominent among the later *Homeridae, composed the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (the Delian part? cf. l. 172), and initiated Homeric recitation at *Syracuse (504/1 bce). Partially true?BibliographyM.

Article

Alan H. Sommerstein

Cynegirus, brother of *Aeschylus, fell at the battle of *Marathon (490 bce) while attempting to seize a Persian ship by the stern (Hdt. 6. 114). This exploit was immortalized in the *Stoa Poecile (c.460; cf. Ael. NA 7. 38), and was variously elaborated by historians (cf. Just. Epit.

Article

Damastes of *Sigeum, Greek geographer and historian in the 5th cent. bce, younger contemporary of *Herodotus (1) (FGrH 5 T 1) and pupil of *Hellanicus (1) (T 2). His works comprise Events in Greece; an ethnographical-geographical work based on *Hecataeus (1) (T 4), exact title unknown (On Peoples or Catalogue of Peoples and Cities or Periplus); On Poets and Sophists (Peri poiētōn kai sophistōn): lost, probably the first attempt to write a history of Greek literature; Ancestors of Those who Fought at Troy (T 1): in antiquity frequently ascribed to *Polus of Acragas, the pupil of *Gorgias (1) (FGrH 7), cf. T 3.

Article

Geoffrey Arnott

New Comedy poet (see comedy (greek) new) whose name implies non-Athenian birth, although the Suidas (δ 50) calls him Athenian. Fr. 1 mentions Adaeus of Macedon, who perished at Cypsela in 353 bce; fr. 2 (68 lines long) a cook's claim to be a pupil of *Epicurus; and fr.

Article

Michael Silk

A literary dedication is a symbolic presentation of a work or collection to a dedicatee as a mark of affection or respect. It is usually embodied in a formal opening (or near-opening) address. The first attested instance is *Dionysius (6) Chalcus' elegy to a friend (fr. 1 West): ‘accept this poem as a toast (προπινομένην). I present it to you first (πέμπω σοι πρώτῳ)…Take it as a gift (λαβὼν τόδε δῶρον) and toast me back in song (ἀοιδὰς ἀντιπρόπιθι)’. The phraseology is prefigured in Pindar, e.g. Nemean 3. 76–9, ‘drink this song that I present to you’ (τόδε τοι πέμπω…πόμ᾽ ἀοίδιμον); but in Pindar poetry is not the poet's gift but the ‘gift of the Muses’ (Ol. 7. 7), and an opening address is reserved for divinities like the Muse herself (Nem. 3. 1, etc. ). Dedication implies secularization. In the 4th cent. bce dedication becomes more matter-of-fact (e.

Article

Geoffrey Arnott

Old Comedy poet (Diog. Laert. 5. 85). Fr. 2 refers to the destruction of the Athenian walls in 404 bce (see Long Walls).

Article

Demetrius (13) Ixion (2nd cent. bce), a grammarian, contemporary with *Aristarchus (2), who seceded from *Alexandria (1) to *Pergamum and disputed Aristarchan textual principles. He also compiled an Atticist Lexicon.

Article

Author of a short guide to letter-writing which enumerates 21 types of letter, with one or two models for each.

Article

Demetrius (16) of Magnesi (fl. 50 BCE), friend of T. *Pomponius Atticus, wrote in Greek on concord (Περὶ ὁοονοίας), and on homonymous towns and writers; much of his biographical detail was transmitted to *Diogenes (6) Laertius. See homonoia.

Article

The treatise On Style (Περὶ Ἑρμνηνείας) is traditionally ascribed to *Demetrius (3) of Phalerum. This is most unlikely to be right. The author probably belongs to the late Hellenistic or early Roman period, though no indications are decisive. After an introductory section on sentence-structure and the period, the book proceeds to a discussion of four types (χαρακτῆρες) of style—grand, smooth, slight, and forceful (μεγαλοπρεπής, γλαφυρός, ἰσχνός, δεινός: see literary criticism in antiquity, para. 5)—and the ways of achieving these and avoiding their ‘corresponding faults’. Much of the material is *Peripatetic; the examples come from poets and historians as well as orators, and among the orators *Demosthenes (2) does not have the dominant position which later rhetoric usually assigned to him; many minor 4th-cent. writers are also quoted. Particularly noteworthy parts of ‘On Style’ are the sections on letter-writing (§§ 223–35) and on humour and charm (χάρις, §§ 131–70, in the discussion of the ‘smooth’ style).

Article

One of the characters in *Plutarch's De defectu oraculorum, where he is said (ch. 2) to be on his way home from *Britain to Tarsus. Perhaps identical with a Demetrius who dedicated two tablets with Greek inscriptions, now in the York museum (Inscriptiones Graecae 14. 254 f.), and possibly also *Demetrius (17).

Article

Demetrius (20) of Troeze (probably 1st cent. ce), wrote works on literary history. The only known title is that of his work on philosophers, Against the Sophists.

Article

Ken Dowden

Demodocus, in *Homer's Odyssey (8. 44–5, 62–4), a blind and respected first-class bard at *Alcinous (1)'s court—an image offered by Homer of his own role. He sings of the adultery of *Ares and *Aphrodite (8. 266–366), a comic pendant to the contrasts in Iliad 5, and sings of the (tragic) Trojan War so realistically that Odysseus weeps (8.

Article

Godfrey Louis Barber and Simon Hornblower

Demon (fl. c. 300 bce), author of an *Atthis in at least four books. The fragments all belong to the period of the kings and suggest an antiquarian rather than historical interest, perhaps influenced by the *Peripatetics and comparable with *Ister of Cyrene. The work was criticized by *Philochorus.