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Article

Andrew Drummond

Atilius Caiatinus (or Calatinus), Aulus, perhaps grandson of Q. *Fabius Maximus Rullianus, consul 258 and 254 bce, censor 247. He enjoyed mixed fortunes in Sicily in 258 but celebrated a triumph in 257/6, probably as praetor (T. C. Brennan, The Praetorship in the Roman Republic (2000), 80–3). *Polybius (1. 38. 6 ff.) credits the capture of *Panormus in 254 to both consuls but only Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina was awarded a triumph. Atilius was the first dictator to take an army outside Italy—to Sicily in 249. He dedicated temples to *Spes in the forum Holitorium and *Fides on the Capitol. Cicero (Sen. 61, etc. ) preserves part of his epitaph.

Article

Andrew Drummond

Consul in 267 and 256 bce (suffect). In 267 both consuls triumphed for successes against the Sallentini and the capture of *Brundisium. In 256 he and L. *Manlius Vulso Longus defeated the Carthaginians in the naval battle of Ecnomus and took the war into Africa, seizing Aspis/Clupea. After Vulso's return to Rome Regulus defeated the Carthaginians at Adys and captured *Tunis, but offered unacceptable peace terms. In spring 255 he was defeated on ground chosen by *Xanthippus (2) and was captured. He died in captivity, probably of natural causes. The later legend (already found in C. *Sempronius Tuditanus fr. 5 Peter, cf. Hor. Carm. 3. 5) of his return to Rome in 250 to negotiate an exchange of prisoners (or peace terms), his successful opposition to any concession, and consequent brutal death at Carthage is almost certainly invented, perhaps to palliate his sons’ torturing of two Punic prisoners in revenge for his death (cf. Diod. Sic. 24 fr. 12). It was apparently unknown to Polybius and its appearance in Cn. *Naevius’ Bellum Punicum (B.

Article

Peter Sidney Derow

Curule aedile 194 bce, praetor 192 and 173, consul 170. Atilius and his colleague, L. Scribonius Libo, were said to be the first *aediles to hold scenic games (see ludi) at the Megalesia. In 192–191 Atilius commanded the fleet against *Nabis and *Antiochus (3) III; his dedication of a gold crown to Delian Apollo during this time was one of the earliest made by a Roman.

Article

Ernst Badian

Atius Balbus, Marcus, of a good senatorial family of *Aricia and related to *Pompey, was the husband of *Caesar's sister Iulia and the father of *Atia (1), *Augustus' mother. Praetor before 59 bce, he was a commissioner under the *lex (2)Iulia agraria.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Atrebates (1), a people of Gallia Belgica (see belgae), conquered by *Caesar in 57 bce. However, in 53 they contributed 4,000 men to the Gallic forces at *Alesia, under *Commius, and revolted again in 51. Under the empire their centre was transferred from the hill-fort at Etrun to Nemetacum (Arras), on an important road junction. Though they will have been disturbed by the Germanic invasions of the late 3rd cent. (Arras was reduced in size), their high-quality woollens still figured in *Diocletian's Price Edict of 301.

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Atrebates (2), an offshoot of a Gaulish tribe which had probably entered Britain before 54 bce and occupied a region between the Thames, the Test, and West Sussex. Successive rulers recorded by coins were *Commius, *Tincommius, Eppillus, and Verica; the last three appear to have had treaties with Rome. After 43 ce part at least of the area was ruled by Ti. *Claudius Cogidubnus, but eventually three *civitates were created: (a) of the Atrebates with its capital at *Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), (b) of the *Belgae with its capital at Venta (Winchester), (c) of the *Reg(i)ni with its capital at Noviomagus (Chichester). An imperial tile-works of the reign of Nero existed at Pamber. Silchester was the site of a pre-Roman oppidum founded in the 1st cent. bce and Chichester also lay within iron age earthworks. Evidence for immediately pre-Roman occupation at Winchester is well understood.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Ernst Badian

Attius Varus, Publius, of undistinguished family, praetor and then governor of Africa before 51 bce, took the side of *Pompey in the Civil War. In 49, after failing to hold *Caesar in *Picenum, he established himself in his old province of Africa (see ligarius). Assaulted by C.

Article

Jean Andreau

An auction is a type of sale consisting of a public competition between several buyers; whoever bids the highest price obtains the object being sold. Such auctions existed in the Greek as well as in the Roman world. Some were organized by the public authorities, while others were organized by individuals selling some of their goods at auction. In Roman Italy, these private auctions served a commercial function. In addition, they facilitated the sale of guarantees for unrepaid loans; likewise, they facilitated the management of private inheritance and estates. Between the 2nd century bce and the 3rd century ce, professional bankers regularly participated in these private auctions by providing credit to the buyers.An auction is a procedure consisting of a public competition between several potential buyers. It was a common practice in Greco-Roman antiquity. The object being sold was awarded to the highest bidder, and he alone paid the object’s full price to the seller. Scholars do not know when auctions first began. They are well attested in the Classical Greek period, as well as in the Hellenistic world and in Rome. In Roman Italy, Plautus and Cato the Elder (in .

Article

Simon Hornblower

Praetor in 107 bce, wrote a ‘Graeca historia’ (i.e. history in Greek), probably of Rome (Cic. Tusc. 5. 112).

Article

Christopher Pelling

Aufidius Bassus, 1st-cent. ce Roman historian, admired for his eloquence (Tac. Dial. 23; Quint. Inst. 10. 1. 103). His health was uncertain, which perhaps prevented a public career; his death was approaching c. ce 60 (Seneca, Ep. 30, praising his Epicurean fortitude). He wrote (1) a ‘German War’, (Bellum Germanicum), probably treating the campaigns of ce 10–16 as a unity; and (2) a general History, which began early enough to treat *Cicero's death (Sen. Suas. 6. 18, 23). It was continued by the elder *Pliny (1) under the title ‘From the Conclusion of Aufidius Bassus’ (A fine Aufidii Bassi), which seems to indicate an inconspicuous closing date; this was not earlier, and perhaps not much later, than ce 31. *Tacitus may well have used him.

Article

Anthony R. Birley

A senator from Umbria, son-in-law of the orator *Fronto and close friend of M. *Aurelius, is often mentioned in the former's Letters, and by Cassius Dio and the Historia Augusta. *Suffect consul in ce 155, he had a long career in imperial service, being sent to Upper Germany in 162 to deal with a threat from the Chatti and to Spain in 170 following a Moorish invasion.

Article

Augustus is often labelled as “first emperor of Rome” and “founder of the Principate”. Both descriptions hide a much fa complex and fluid political transformation that affected all areas of Roman society during the period when Augustus was princeps.

Augustus did not owe his success entirely to his name, but his inheritance of Julius Caesar’s wealth and support from the plebs of Rome and the army were key props in his rise to power. He made himself central to the state, and people felt that Augustus was uniquely placed to ensure that the gods remained on Rome’s side. His account of his achievements in his Res Gestae demonstrates that he continued to accumulate fabulous wealth, which he then lavishly spent upon the city of Rome. He did encounter some opposition which tends to be underplayed in the sources, partly because he showed remarkable resilience in recovering from setbacks and partly because none of the incidents seriously undermined him in the long term.

Article

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

(Gk. Σεβαστός, Σεβαστή) Republican usage was religious (first in Enn. Ann. 502: ‘augusto augurio’). On 16 January 27 bce*Octavian received the title from the senate, and he intended *Tiberius also to take it. Tiberius did not formally accept, but it was used in official documents and taken by all later emperors (*Vitellius delayed).

Article

Aurelia  

Ernst Badian

Aurelia, of the family of the Cottae, was the mother of C. *Iulius Caesar (2). She watched over the conduct of his wife *Pompeia and detected P. *Clodius Pulcher at the Bona Dea ceremony. She died in 54 bce.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (c. 215–275 ce), a man of humble origin from the Danubian region, achieved high military rank under *Gallienus, but helped organize the plot that destroyed him. Appointed by *Claudius II to the chief command of the cavalry, he served with distinction against the *Goths. Though Aurelian was the obvious successor to Claudius, he did not immediately declare himself on the latter's death, allowing the throne to pass to Quintillus. However, it was not long before he was hailed as emperor by his troops and disposed of his rival (c. September 270).Barbarian invasions first claimed his attention. He defeated the *Vandals in Pannonia and then repulsed a dangerous incursion into Italy by the *Alamanni and Iuthungi, pursuing the latter over the Danube. On his return to Rome, he surrounded the city with walls to protect it against further barbarian attacks (*wall of Aurelian).

Article

Ernst Badian

Gaius Aurelius Cotta, brother of the two following and nephew of P. *Rutilius Rufus, was a distinguished orator and, with M. *Livius Drusus (2) and P. *Sulpicius Rufus, one of the circle of ambitious young nobles around L. *Licinius Crassus. Exiled by Q. *Varius' commission, he returned with *Sulla.

Article

Ernst Badian

Aurelius (RE 102) Cotta, Lucius, brother of Gaius (above) and Marcus (below), as praetor 70 bce participated in the partial reversal of *Sulla's settlement by a law dividing criminal juries equally among senators, equites, and *tribuni aerarii. In 66 he successfully prosecuted the consuls designate, P. *Autronius Paetus and P.

Article

Ernst Badian

Aurelius (RE 107) Cotta, Marcus, brother of the two preceding, as consul 74 bce was sent to defend newly annexed *Bithynia against *Mithradates VI. Defeated by land and sea near *Chalcedon, he was rescued by L. *Licinius Lucullus (2). He remained in Bithynia and after a long siege sacked *Heraclea (3).

Article

Aurelius Severus Alexander, Marcus, Roman emperor 222–35 ce. Son of *Iulia Avita Mamaea by her second husband, the procurator Gessius Marcianus of Arca Caesarea in Syria, b. c.209 ce, his names were Gessius Alexianus Bassianus until his adoption in 221 by his cousin M. *Aurelius Antoninus (2) (Elagabalus), when he became M. Aurelius Alexander Caesar. Made emperor on Elagabalus' murder in March 222, he took the further name Severus and was called ‘son of the deified Antoninus’ (Caracalla). His mother, under whose influence he remained throughout his reign, set out to recreate a ‘senatorial regime’, with a council of sixteen. Elderly senators such as *Marius Maximus and *Cassius Dio were prominent. The jurist *Ulpianus became praetorian prefect but, at latest in early 224, was killed by the guard; Dio was obliged to hold his second consulship (229) outside Rome to avoid the same fate and expressed concern at growing military indiscipline at the end of his History (bk.

Article

Aurelius (RE 46) Antoninus (1), Marcus (CE 188–217), nicknamed Caracalla, emperor ce 198–217. Elder son of L. *Septimius Severus, originally called Septimius Bassianus; renamed after M. Aurelius and made Caesar in 195. Augustus in 198, he was consul for the first time with his father in 202 and for the second time with his brother P. *Septimius Geta (2) in 205, when he had his hated father-in-law C. *Fulvius Plautianus killed. Consul for the third time in 208, again with Geta, whom he also hated, he accompanied his father to *Britain, sharing command against the Caledonians. When Severus died, he and Geta abandoned Scotland, making the *wall of Hadrian the frontier again, and returned to Rome. After having Geta killed (26 December 211), a drastic purge followed. To conciliate the soldiers, he raised their pay, creating financial problems. One solution was the ‘Antonine *constitution’; he simultaneously doubled the inheritance tax paid only by citizens, which funded the *aerariummilitare.