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Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Annaeus Cornutus, Lucius, Stoic philosopher, grammarian, and rhetorician whose pupils included *Lucan and *Persius (who honoured him in Sat. 5, and whose Satires he reportedly revised after the poet's death); exiled by Nero. His Life, now lost, was the last in Diog. Laert. 7; the description Λεπτίτης (Suda), denoting a citizen (not merely native) of *Lepcis Magna, refutes the common supposition that he was the younger Seneca's freedman, though patronage remains plausible. His one extant work (conjectural title Ἐπιδρομὴ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν θεολογίαν παραδεδομένων, ‘Summary of the Traditions concerning Greek Mythology’), addressed to a young child, uses *etymology and also *allegory to derive philosophical insights from divine names and myths. Lost writings included a critique of Aristotle's Categories, reviewing a previous Stoic treatment of the subject; a treatise on spelling, favouring contemporary usage over ancient and balancing the claims of etymology and pronunciation; and commentaries on Virgil (one addressed to *Silius Italicus).

Article

He, *Hegesias (1), and Theodorus ‘the godless’ became leaders of three divergent branches of the school, his own originality consisting, so far as we know, in stressing the importance of the pleasures of friendship (see love and friendship). He is said to have ransomed *Plato (1) when the latter was sold into slavery on the occasion of one of his visits to *Syracuse, but the authenticity of the event is doubtful.

Article

(see academy) Antiochus studied under *Philon (3) of Larissa, but later founded his own school. He joined L. *Licinius Lucullus (2) on a mission to *Alexandria (1) and the eastern provinces in 87/6. Cicero heard Antiochus' lectures at Athens in 79 and held him in high esteem throughout his life. Antiochus died in 69/8 bce, shortly after the battle of Tigranocerta, which he witnessed, again in the company of Lucullus.According to Cicero, Antiochus left Philon's Academy because of its scepticism (see sceptics), and embraced a version of dogmatism hardly distinguishable from Stoic doctrine (see stoicism). Antiochus himself maintained that the Stoics, together with the *Peripatetics, were the legitimate heirs of *Plato (1)'s philosophy, while the scepticism of the Academics from *Arcesilaus (1) on had been an aberration. He therefore called his school the Old *Academy.

Article

Antipater (2), Stoic, succeeded *Diogenes (3) of Babylon as head of the Stoa at Athens, and taught *Panaetius. His basic positions differed little from those of *Chrysippus, apart from his definition of the final good (Arius Didymus quoted in Stob. Ecl. 2. 76. 13–15) in terms of choosing rather than attaining natural advantages; it does not seem to have been influential (see Plut. De communibus notitiis adversus stoicos 1071a–1072f for criticisms).

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Antipater (4), who introduced *Cato (Uticensis) to Stoic philosophy, died shortly before 44 bce. He wrote on physical, metaphysical, and ethical issues.

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Antiphon (2), of Athens (5th. cent. bce), *sophist. Scholars are divided on whether he was identical with the orator (see antiphon (1)). Works attributed to him include Concord and Truth; of the latter some papyrus fragments survive (DK 44), critical of conventional morality from a standpoint of self-interest.

Article

Antisthenes (1) (mid-5th–mid-4th cent. bce), associate of *Socrates, one of those named by *Plato (1) as having been present at his final conversation. A professional teacher, he continued the sophistic tradition by writing voluminously on many subjects, including ethics, politics, natural philosophy, epistemology, language, literature, and rhetoric, and in a variety of genres, including Socratic dialogues, declamations, and *diatribes against various people, including Plato.He followed Socrates in holding that virtue can be taught and that it is sufficient for happiness, ‘requiring nothing more than Socratic strength’ (Diog. Laert. 6. 11). Consequently he stressed the austerity of the Socratic lifestyle, and was vehemently hostile to pleasures except those of a hard and simple life. This emphasis on the self-sufficiency and detachment of the virtuous agent was taken up by the Stoics (see stoicism) and (with special emphasis on physical austerity) the Cynics; later writers treat Antisthenes as the founder of the Cynic tradition. See cynics; stoicism; socratics.

Article

Antisthenes (2), of *Rhodes (fl. early 2nd cent. bce), wrote a history, perhaps of Rhodes, down to his own time (used by *Polybius (1) via *Zeno (4)). He is probably the Peripatetic philosopher who wrote a history of the philosophical schools (Διαδοχαὶ φιλοσόφων).

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Anytus  

Michael Gagarin

Anytus, a wealthy Athenian and democratic leader, best known as a prosecutor of *Socrates (399 bce). As general in 409, he failed to prevent the loss of *Pylos (Ath. pol. 27. 5); at his trial he reportedly bribed the entire jury. After 403 bce he was a respected, moderate leader of the restored democracy. *Plato (1) (Meno 91) introduces him as a passionate enemy of the *sophists.

Article

Apollodorus (6), of Athens (c.180–after 120 bce), studied in Athens with the Stoic *Diogenes (3) of Babylon, collaborated with *Aristarchus (2) in Alexandria, perhaps fled (in 146 ?), probably to *Pergamum, and later lived in Athens. A scholar of great learning and varied interests, he was the last of a series of intellectual giants in *Alexandria (1).1.Chronicle (Χρονικά) was based on the researches of *Eratosthenes, although it extended coverage beyond the death of *Alexander (3) the Great to Apollodorus' time. Written in comic trimeters which made it easy to memorize, it covered successive periods of history, philosophical schools, and the life and work of individuals from the fall of Troy (1184) to 146/5; later it was continued to 119 or 110/9 bce. Apollodorus frequently synchronized events and used archon lists for dating. .

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Apollodorus (8), of Seleuceia (1) on Tigris, Stoic philosopher (see stoicism), the author of an Ethics and a Physics cited by Diog. Laert. 7. 102, 129; 125, 135. He also wrote logical works. Testimonia in von Arnim, SVF 3. 259–61; Long and Sedley, see index.

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Arcesilaus or Arcesilas (both forms given in the sources), of Pitane in *Aeolia, 316/5 –242/1 bce, head of the *Academy from c.268. In his youth, Arcesilaus studied mathematics with *Autolycus (2) at Pitane. His older brother wanted him to study rhetoric, but Arcesilaus escaped to Athens to study philosophy. He first attended the lectures of *Theophrastus, but then formed a close friendship with *Crantor, whom he followed to the Academy. There he also met *Polemon (2) and Crates. On the death of Crates, Socratides, an older member of the school, resigned in favour of Arcesilaus, and he was elected scholarch. *Diogenes (6) Laertius' biography (4. 28–45) describes him as a kind and urbane man, respected and admired by his contemporaries.From the 1st cent. bce on Arcesilaus was known as the founder of the Middle Academy (Diog. Laert. 1. 14; Sext. Emp. PH 1.

Article

Archelaus (1) philosopher (fl. 5th cent. bce), probably of Athenian birth, was a pupil of *Anaxagoras and followed him in the main, but in some details adhered to the views of the Ionians and *Empedocles. The tradition is consequently confused: he is credited both with accepting Anaxagoras' original ‘mixture’ of elements, from which the hot and the cold are first separated out, and also (improbably) with generating everything, as *Anaximenes (2) had, by condensation and rarefaction from air.

Article

C. C. W. Taylor

Aristippus (1), from *Cyrene, an associate of *Socrates. His writings are said to have included dialogues and historical works, and he is said to have been the first of Socrates' associates to charge a fee for teaching. Much of the ancient evidence concerns his worldly and luxurious mode of life, and *Xenophon (1) represents him as a champion of sybaritic hedonism, whom Socrates admonishes with *Prodicus' fable of the Choice of *Heracles. He is said to have been the founder of the Cyrenaic school (see cyrenaics), but this may be through confusion with his grandson of the same name (see below). While it is impossible to determine which, if any, of the specific doctrines of the school were held by the elder Aristippus, it is plausible to see the school as developing a general position laid down by him.(2), grandson of the above, son of his daughter Arete, herself a leading member of the school, whence his nickname Μητροδί-δακτος (‘Mother-taught’).

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

Friend of *Horace and addressee of Ode 1. 22 and Epist. 1. 10; also mentioned in Sat. 1. 9. 60 ff. and 1. 10. 83. Said by *Pomponius Porphyrio to have been an eminent *grammaticus and an author of comedies, he may have had Stoic leanings, see stoicism (S.

Article

M. B. Trapp

Aristocles of Messene (Sicily or Peloponnese?), Peripatetic philosopher conventionally dated to 2nd cent. ce and identified with the teacher of *Alexander (14) of Aphrodisias, but perhaps belonging to 1st cent. bce/ce. His On Philosophy seems to have been an attempt at a critical history. He also wrote rhetorical treatises, an Ethics, a work On *Sarapis, and a comparison of *Homer and *Plato (1).

Article

Ariston (1), of Chios, Stoic, pupil of *Zeno (2), developed Zeno's ideas in a way later regarded as unorthodox after *Chrysippus' writings had established a Stoic orthodoxy. He enjoyed a wide but brief popularity. He uncompromisingly focused on ethics, rejecting physics and logic. Within ethics he was also uncompromising, stressing the unity of the virtues, and the virtuous person's non-rule-governed discernment of the right thing to do. He stressed the importance of the virtuous person's point of view, to the extent of denying the significance of general distinctions of value made independently of it. The virtuous person is like an actor playing Agamemnon or Thersites: his material does not matter, only what he does with it. See stoicism.

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Ariston of *Ceos, *Peripatetic, probably succeeded *Lyco as head of the Lyceum c.225 bce. *Diogenes (6) Laertius appears to have derived from him the wills of *Aristotle and his successors, and a bibliography of *Straton (1). Gercke and Moraux assign to him Diogenes' bibliography of Aristotle, traditionally attributed to *Hermippus (2). Some reports may relate to him or to his Stoic namesake *Ariston (1) of Chios; a distinction between rational and non-rational soul seems to be his.

Article

Ariston (3), of Alexandria (1), 1st cent. bce philosopher, pupil of Aristus the brother of *Antiochus (11) of Ascalon. He later became a *Peripatetic and may be identical with the Ariston mentioned by *Simplicius as a commentator on Aristotle's Categories.

Article

Martha C. Nussbaum and Catherine Osborne

Aristotle (384–322 BCE), philosopher, pupil of *Plato (1), was born in *Stagira in *Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus, a member of the medical guild of the Asclepiadae (see asclepius), was court physician to *Amyntas II of Macedonia, and Aristotle may have spent part of his childhood at the court in *Pella. Although his interest in biology may have developed early because of his father's career, there is no evidence that he began systematic study. Asclepiad doctors taught their sons dissection, but Aristotle probably did not receive this training, since both of his parents died when he was extremely young.

2. At the age of 17 he travelled to Athens and entered Plato (1)'s *Academy, remaining until Plato's death in 348/7 bce. Plato's philosophical influence is evident in all of Aristotle's work. Even when he is critical (a great part of the time) he expresses deep respect for Plato's genius. Some scholars imagine that no dissent was tolerated in the Academy; they therefore conclude that all works in which Aristotle criticizes Plato must have been written after Plato's death. This is implausible. Plato's own work reveals a capacity for searching self-criticism. Frequently these criticisms resemble extant Aristotelian criticisms. An attractive possibility is that the arguments of his brilliant pupil were among the stimuli that led Plato to re-examine his own ideas.