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Albert Brian Bosworth

Born in *Nicomedia in *Bithynia, he held local office and pursued studies with *Epictetus, whose lectures he later published (allegedly verbatim) as the Discourses and summarized in the Encheiridion (‘Manual’). In Greece between 108 and 112 he attracted the friendship of *Hadrian, who later adlected him to senatorial rank (see adlection) and after his consulate (?129) employed him for six years (131–7) as legate of *Cappadocia. Subsequently he retired to Athens, where he held the archonship (145/6), and perhaps survived into the reign of *Marcus Aurelius.One of the most distinguished writers of his day, Arrian represented himself as a second *Xenophon (1) and adopted a style which fused elements of Xenophon into a composite, artificial (yet outstandingly lucid) diction based on the great masters, *Herodotus (1) and *Thucydides (2). The Cynegeticus is an explicit revision of Xenophon's monograph in the light of the revolution in *hunting brought by the Celtic greyhound; and Xenophon's influence is demonstrable in the short essays he wrote in Cappadocia: the Periplus (c.

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Artemidorus (1), of Tarsus (2nd and 1st cents. bce), grammarian. For his edition of the bucolic poets he wrote Anth. Pal. 9. 205. See also glossa, glossary, greek.

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Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

Artemidorus (2) (fl. 104–101 BCE), a Greek of *Ephesus; his name means ‘gift of *Artemis', the city’s most important goddess. He voyaged along Mediterranean shores, outer Spain (and Gaul?), and in *Alexandria (1) wrote eleven geographical books (Περίπλους, Τὰ γεωγραφούμενα, Γεωγραφίας Βιβλία), often quoted. His records, especially of distances in western regions, including (misapplied) use of Roman measurements, were fair, with errors and confusions (K. Miller, Mappaemundi (1898), 6. 127 ff.). For eastern waters and Ethiopia Artemidorus relied on *Agatharchides, adding distances and details as far as Cape Guardafui; for India, on *Alexander (3) the Great's writers and *Megasthenes. He made two calculations of the inhabited world's length and two of its breadth, without determining positions by latitude and longitude. He was an important intermediary source between Agatharchides and *Strabo. A remarkable new papyrus of Artemidorus, including *maps and other drawings, was published in 2008.

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Artemon (1) (probably not later than 2nd cent. bce), sometimes identified with *Artemon (2) of Cassandreia or *Artemon (3) of Pergamum, edited the letters of Aristotle with notes on the art of letter-writing.

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Artemon (2), of Cassandreia (perhaps 2nd or 1st cent. bce), wrote two bibliographical treatises (perhaps part of a single work): (1)On Collecting Books,(2)On Using Books, in the second book of which he discussed the three types of drinking-song (skolion; see scolia); also a work On the Dionysiac Guild (see dionysus, artists of).

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Artemon (5), of Magnesia (date uncertain), author of a Famous Exploits of Women, from which *Sopater (2) made excerpts.

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Asclepiades of Tragilus (4th cent. bce), wrote the Tragodumena (FGrH12). This learned six-book work focused on how tragedy told myth in comparison with other accounts, such as those of earlier mythographers (Pherecydes in F. He had a significant impact on the mythographic tradition, influencing for instance Ps.-*Apollodorus (9) and, above all, the scholiasts on Homer.

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Asclepiades (2), of Samos, also called Sicelides (fl. 300–270 bce). Inventor of the Alexandrian erotic *epigram (see alexandria (1); museum), distinguished by concise and witty treatment with the paraphernalia of fire and Erotes that were to be so characteristic of later erotic epigram. A strong influence on *Callimachus (3), *Posidippus (2), and *Hedylus. He praised the Lyde of *Antimachus (Anth. Pal. 9. 63), which Callimachus had attacked (fr. 398 R. Pf.), and is listed among the latter's literary enemies (schol. Flor. p. 3 R. Pf.). Spoken of by *Theocritus as a master (7. 40). He may have published a collection of epigrams jointly with *Posidippus (2) and *Hedylus (A. D. E. Cameron, Greek Anthology (1993), 369–76).

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Peter Barr Reid Forbes and Kenneth S. Sacks

Asclepiades (4), of Myrleia in *Bithynia (1st cent. bce), worked in Spain, and wrote on the history of Bithynia, and of scholarship; on *Homer and *Theocritus; and, as Atticist analogist, Περὶ ὀρθογραφίας, ‘On Orthography’. It is either he or the homonymous doctor (no. 3 above) whom *Sextus Empiricus quotes in the Adv.

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Brian Campbell

Asclepiodotus, probably the pupil of *Posidonius (2), wrote an account of the Greek *phalanx and other branches of the army, which after *Aeneas Tacticus is the earliest extant example of a treatise on military practice. His account of the organization and disposition of an ideal phalanx of 16,384 men is theoretical and highly technical. He may be reproducing a lost work of Posidonius, with some material possibly derived from *Polybius (1), or earlier textbooks; items of historical interest are occasionally preserved, e.

Article

Lawrence Kim

Asianism is a modern coinage referring to the rhetorical practice of certain Greek and Latin orators whose styles were designated by ancient critics as Asian (Asianus, Asiaticus, Ἀσιανός)—the “Asia” in question being the Republican Roman province. Asian eloquence was often contrasted unfavorably to a corresponding Attic style (Atticus, Ἀττικός), which was modelled on the prose of classical Athenian writers (a practice now known as Atticism). This opposition between Asian and Attic styles is first attested in Roman oratorical circles during the mid-1st century bce and was subsequently adopted by Greek critics in Augustan Rome, but seems to have fallen out of fashion by the reign of Tiberius. While Attic remains a general stylistic ideal in the more broadly conceived classicism of Imperial Greek literature, the term Asian disappears as a stylistic label. In a related, but separate development, from the late 1st century ce onwards, Greek literary writers increasingly adhered to a linguistic, rather than stylistic, variety of Atticism, which concentrated on reproducing the ancient Attic dialect used by Athenian authors of the 5th and 4th centuries bce.

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Asius  

Martin Litchfield West

Asius, of Samos (?6th cent. bce), wrote genealogical hexameter poetry (see genealogy) concerning the legendary history of *Samos and other parts of Greece; also some elegy.

Article

Michael Silk

Assonance is a technical term of modern literary analysis, used of a perceptible repetition of a sound or sounds within a verbal sequence. We may distinguish: (1) consonantal repetition, generally called ‘alliteration’, especially if word-initial (βράγχος καὶ βῆχες καὶ βαρυφωνίη Hippoc. Aer. 8; κακῶν…κῦμα Aesch. Sept. 758) or stem-initial (δυσκύμαντα…κακά Aesch. Ag. 653); (2) vocalic repetition (ἄγριον ἄνδραIl. 8. 96, λαμπρὸν φάος [α-ο/α-ο]Il. 1. 605); (3) syllabic repetition, or near-repetition, of stem syllables (πάθει μάθος Aesch. Ag. 177, σῶμα…σῆμα Pl. Grg. 493a), and of (4) final syllables (i.e. rhyme or near-rhyme: γέροντας ὄντας Ar. Ach. 222, στρόφου καὶ ψόφου Hippoc. VM 10, γιγνόμενος ἀναίσθητος θάνατος Thuc. 2. 43. 6, κρείων ἈγαμέμνωνIl. 1. 130).In ancient stylistics assonance is rarely discussed and inconsistently labelled. Types (3) and (4) are sometimes referred to as paronomasia (Cic. De or. 2. 256), parhomoiōsis (Arist. Rh. 3. 9. 9), homoioteleuton (Quint.

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Andrew Brown

Astydamas, the name of two tragic poets of the 4th cent. bce, father and son. The father was the son of Morsimus, son of *Aeschylus' nephew Philocles. It appears that some of the information attached to the father in our sources properly belongs to the son. In that case all we know of the father is that he produced his first play in 398 and lived to be 60 (Diod. Sic. 14. 43. 5); and it was the son who was said to have been a pupil of *Isocrates before turning to tragedy, to have written 240 tragedies (but the number seems very high), and to have won fifteen victories.The younger Astydamas was one of the most successful poets of his day. He won his first victory in 372, and others are recorded in inscriptions. After the success of his Parthenopaeus (340) the Athenians honoured him with a statue in the theatre (part of the base survives), but he was not allowed to inscribe on it the conceited epigram which made him a byword for vanity (D. L. Page, Further Greek Epigrams (1990), 33–4).

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S. Douglas Olson

The Deipnosophistai (“Learned Banqueters”) of Athenaeus of Naucratis (fl. c. 200 ce)—nominally an account of a great dinner party or series of dinner parties in Rome—preserves an enormous number of fragments of otherwise lost Greek literature. On a superficial level, the text is concerned with luxury, and it accordingly offers rich anecdotal treatments of banqueting customs, fish, cakes, cups, sexuality, and the like, along with a wealth of detailed philological observations. Its larger interest is in recalling the extraordinary wealth of the Greek literary and cultural tradition, and in using that tradition to discuss contemporary intellectual, literary, and social issues. The text is preserved in a single manuscript whose gaps can be partially filled from an ancient epitome.Athenaeus was the author of the Deipnosophistai (“Dinner-sophists,” i.e. “Learned Banqueters”), a massive compendium of ancient Greek literature in the guise of a report of events at a great dinner party or series of dinner parties. His .

Article

Kenneth Dover

Autocrates, Athenian comic poet, ἀρχαῖος (‘Old’; see comedy (greek), old), according to the Suda, which adds ‘he wrote also many tragedies’. Τυμπανισταί (or Τυμπανίστριαι, Hsch.) is the only title we have.

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Geoffrey Arnott

Axionicus, Middle Comedy poet (see comedy (greek), middle), perhaps late in the period (fr. 2 mentions Gryllis, a *parasite of one of *Alexander (3) the Great's generals). Fr. 4 parodies a Euripidean lyric (cf. U. v. Wilamowitz–Moellendorff, Griechische Verskunst (1921) 410 n. 1).

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Babrius  

Niklas Holzberg

The collection of verse fables by Babrius, a Greek poet about whose life nothing is known, survives, albeit not in its entirety, in a manuscript which only came to light at the beginning of the 19th century. The focus of scholarship accordingly lay after its discovery, and for some 200 years, largely on textual history and criticism. Modern analytical approaches have revealed that Babrius is a skilled and fascinating narrator, one who attaches more importance to the plot of his fables than to the moral of each tale. Indeed, the composition and disposition of his two-book work—written in choliambics, the fables are set out in loosely alphabetical order but connected by a web of intratextual allusions, all in combination with obvious intertextual references to classical Greek literature—places the poet firmly in the Hellenistic tradition of self-reflexive poetry.Babrius’s fables date roughly from the end of the 2nd or the beginning of the 3rd century ce and, around the year 400, were drawn on by the Roman poet Avianus for his own collection of fables.

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Bacchylides (c. 520–450 BCE), lyric poet, of Iulis in *Ceos, son of Midon (or Midylus, Etym. Magn. 582, 20), nephew of *Simonides (Strabo 486, Suidas, entry under Βακχυλίδης). His floruit was given as 480 by Chron. Pasch. 162b (304. 6), as 467 and 451 by *Eusebius–Jerome (the entry in Eusebius, Chron. Olympian Odes 87.2 = 431 bce, refers to a flute-player Bacchylides mentioned by the comic poet *Plato (2) in his Sophistai, fr. 149 R. Kassel and C. Austin, PCG 7. 494, see G. Fatouros, Philol.1961, 147). The assumption that he was younger than *Pindar (Eust. Prooem. ad Pind. 25 = scholiast Pindar 3, p. 297. 13 Dr.) is unfounded and unlikely in view of the early date of his poem in praise of the young prince *Alexander (1), son of *Amyntas (fr. 20b Snell–Maehler), who succeeded his father as king of Macedon in c.

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Geoffrey Arnott

Baton, mid-3rd cent. bce; an anecdote links him (if his name is rightly conjectured at Plut. Mor. 55c; cf. J. Traversa, Index Stoicorum Herculanensis (1952) col. 22 = SVF 1, fr. 471 von Arnim) with *Cleanthes (d. c.231) and *Arcesilaus (1) (d. 241). Frs. 3 and 5 travesty *Epicurus' teaching about ‘the good’ and pleasure.