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Article

Michael Gagarin

(4th cent. bce), of the *deme of Sphettus in Attica, a devoted follower of *Socrates, was present at his trial and death. He wrote speeches for the lawcourts and taught oratory, but fell into poverty and took refuge at the court in *Syracuse, returning to Athens after the expulsion of *Dionysius (2) II in 356. Best known as the author of Socratic dialogues which resemble *Xenophon (1)'s more than *Plato (1)'s, Aeschines was apparently not an original thinker, and his Socrates expounds common ethical views. Although only fragments survive today, seven dialogues were considered genuine in antiquity: Alcibiades, Axiochus, Aspasia, Callias, Miltiades, Rhinon, Telauges. The first of these was partly intended to defend Socrates against charges of corrupting the young *Alcibiades. The dialogues of Aeschines were highly esteemed for their style and their faithfulness to Socrates' character and conversational manner.

Article

John Dillon

Alcinous (2), accredited in the MSS as author of the Didaskalikos, or ‘Handbook of Platonism’, a summary of *Plato (1)'s doctrines designed as a handbook for the general public. He was long identified with the 2nd-cent. ce Platonist *Albinus (1); but this identification has recently been impugned on palaeographical grounds, and it seems better to preserve the original name, admitting ignorance of the author's identity or dating (though a 2nd-cent. date still seems reasonable). Long since rejected as an accurate account of Plato's own views, by reason of its incorporation of many Aristotelian and even Stoic doctrines and terminology (see aristotle; stoicism), the work has now come to be valued for what it is, a summary of the doctrine of at least one school of the Platonism of the period. Alcinous attributes Aristotle's categories and syllogistic to Plato; he equates Plato's Demiurge with Aristotle's Unmoved Mover; he interprets Plato's transcendent Forms as thoughts of God. However, despite an interesting distinction between a primal god and a world-mind, Alcinous has no doctrine of a supra-intellectual One, such as is characteristic of *Neoplatonism.

Article

Apollodorus (6), of Athens (c.180–after 120 bce), studied in Athens with the Stoic *Diogenes (3) of Babylon, collaborated with *Aristarchus (2) in Alexandria, perhaps fled (in 146 ?), probably to *Pergamum, and later lived in Athens. A scholar of great learning and varied interests, he was the last of a series of intellectual giants in *Alexandria (1).1.Chronicle (Χρονικά) was based on the researches of *Eratosthenes, although it extended coverage beyond the death of *Alexander (3) the Great to Apollodorus' time. Written in comic trimeters which made it easy to memorize, it covered successive periods of history, philosophical schools, and the life and work of individuals from the fall of Troy (1184) to 146/5; later it was continued to 119 or 110/9 bce. Apollodorus frequently synchronized events and used archon lists for dating. .

Article

Albert Brian Bosworth

Born in *Nicomedia in *Bithynia, he held local office and pursued studies with *Epictetus, whose lectures he later published (allegedly verbatim) as the Discourses and summarized in the Encheiridion (‘Manual’). In Greece between 108 and 112 he attracted the friendship of *Hadrian, who later adlected him to senatorial rank (see adlection) and after his consulate (?129) employed him for six years (131–7) as legate of *Cappadocia. Subsequently he retired to Athens, where he held the archonship (145/6), and perhaps survived into the reign of *Marcus Aurelius.One of the most distinguished writers of his day, Arrian represented himself as a second *Xenophon (1) and adopted a style which fused elements of Xenophon into a composite, artificial (yet outstandingly lucid) diction based on the great masters, *Herodotus (1) and *Thucydides (2). The Cynegeticus is an explicit revision of Xenophon's monograph in the light of the revolution in *hunting brought by the Celtic greyhound; and Xenophon's influence is demonstrable in the short essays he wrote in Cappadocia: the Periplus (c.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Chamaeleon, of *Heraclea (3) Pontica (c.350–after 281 bce), Greek *Peripatetic writer; almost no biographical details exist. He wrote works on *satyric drama and comedy, and studies of a number of early poets, including *Homer, *Pindar, and *Aeschylus. These works, which were anecdotal and uncritical, are often cited by *Athenaeus (1): their hallmark was the deduction of biographical data from references in comedy and from the writers’ own works, a technique already visible in the Aristotelian ‘Constitution of Athens’ (: see athēnaiōn politeia. Chamaeleon's philosophical writings, ‘On Drunkenness’, ‘On Pleasure’ (alternatively attributed to *Theophrastus), ‘On the Gods’, and his ‘Speech of Encouragement’ (Προτρεπτικός), also seem to have stood firmly in the Aristotelian tradition.

Article

Tiberius Claudius Aristocles of *Pergamum (2nd cent. ce), was a Peripatetic philosopher turned sophist who also held the consulship. As sophist he studied under *Herodes Atticus, taught in Pergamum and performed throughout Italy and Asia Minor. His works included two rhetorical textbooks, letters, and declamations.

Article

Crates (2), of *Thebes (1) (c.368/365–288/285 bce), *Cynic philosopher and poet. Moving to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of *Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he maintained Diogenes’ philosophy is disputed. He claimed to be ‘a citizen of Diogenes’ and espoused a similar cosmopolitanism; notoriously enacted Diogenes’ prescriptions regarding free and public sex in his relations with Hipparchia, with whom he shared a Cynic way of life; and often expressed ethical sentiments as extreme and intolerant as Diogenes'. But he did not insist on the complete renunciation of wealth or that everybody should become a Cynic, and he conceded a certain legitimacy to existing occupations; and the deployment of his considerable charm and kindliness in proclaiming his message, comforting the afflicted, and reconciling enemies, won him the titles of ‘door-opener’ and ‘good spirit’ and a reputation for humanity which endured throughout antiquity. Granted their obvious differences in personality and missionary approach, Crates seems himself to have followed Diogenes rigorously, while (sometimes) allowing greater latitude to others. This partial moral relativism makes him the link between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ Cynicism (there are clear Cratetean elements in *Lucian's Demon.

Article

Valeria Piano

As one of the most ancient Greek papyri ever found (it dates back to the second half of the 4th century bce), and given the length of its extant part, the Derveni papyrus effectively represents the oldest “book” of Europe. It was found at Derveni, near Thessaloniki, in 1962, close to the rich tomb of a knight belonging to the army of Philip II or Alexander the Great. The volumen had been placed on the funeral pyre along with other offerings, and thanks to the process of semi-carbonisation it underwent, the upper half of the roll was preserved, maintaining a good degree of readability. The papyrus contains a philosophical-religious text, mostly in the form of an allegorical commentary on a theo-cosmogonical poem attributed to Orpheus. The first columns expound a religious and ritual discourse that deals with issues related to sacrifices, souls, daimones, retribution, cosmic justice, and divination. In the commentary (cols. VII–XXVI), the Orphic hexameters are systematically quoted and interpreted in terms of natural philosophy of a Presocratic brand. The mythical narrative of the succession of the gods, as well as of the origin of the cosmos, is thus matched by a cosmological and physical account, which is equally related to the origin and the functioning of the universe, and is sustained by a theologised conception of nature.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Dicaearchus of *Messana, Greek polymath and prolific writer, pupil of *Aristotle and contemporary of *Theophrastus and *Aristoxenus: fl. c.320–300 bce. He spent some of his life in the *Peloponnese. Fragments only survive of his works, but they show a remarkable range:(1) The Life of Greece, a pioneering history of culture in three books: it began with an idealized worldwide golden age and went on to trace the evolution of contemporary Greek culture, pointing the contribution of Chaldaeans and Egyptians as well as Greeks. (2) On Lives, in several books, treating *Plato (1), *Pythagoras (1), and other philosophers: he found ‘juvenile’ and ‘vulgar’ elements in the Phaedrus The title suggests a discussion of different lifestyles rather than straightforward biographies, and he presented his subjects as men of action as well as of reflection. (3) On Alcaeus, perhaps including a commentary; this again treated wider aspects of cultural history. (4) Works on .

Article

M. B. Trapp

Dio Cocceianus, later surnamed Chrysostom (c.40/50-110/120 ce), Greek orator, writer, local politician and moralist, pursued a double career, as member of the governing elite of his home town of Prusa (Bithynia), and as public speaker and intellectual in pursuit of an international reputation. His oratorical ability took him at a relatively young age to the fringes of the Imperial court, where his contacts included the future Emperor Nerva. Under Domitian, another connection earned him a sentence of exile from Italy and Bithynia that was not rescinded until Nerva's accession in late 96. After his recall, Dio re-established himself at Prusa, and as an international speaker, making appearances in Tarsus and at Olympia, as well as in the cities of Bithynia. Pliny's letters to Trajan (Epp. 10.81-2) show him still engaged in local wrangles in 109/10. How close a relationship with Trajan he himself enjoyed in his later career is debatable.

Article

Frederick Arthur George Beck and Rosalind Thomas

Greek ideas of education (paideia), whether theoretical or practical, encompassed upbringing and cultural training in the widest sense, not merely schooling and formal education. The poets were regarded as the educators of their society, particularly in the Archaic period, but also well into the classical, when *Plato (1) could attack *Homer's status as educator of Greece (e.g. Resp. 606e, and generally, bks. 2, 3, 10; cf. Xen. Symp. 4. 6 for the conventional view). Much education would have taken place in an aristocratic milieu informally through institutions like the *symposium (as in the poetry of *Theognis (1)) or *festivals (cf. the children reciting *Solon's poetry at the *Apaturia, Pl. Ti. 21b), backed up by the old assumption that the *aristocracy possessed inherited, not instructed, excellence. Important educational functions were seen by some in the relationship of a boy and an older lover (see homosexuality); or in the very institutions of the city-state (*polis), the city festivals and rituals (e.

Article

Favorinus (Φαβωρῖνος, born in Arelate (mod. Arles), learned Greek in (?) Marseilles (see massalia), and worked exclusively in that language for the whole of his professional career; he may also have studied with Dio Chrysostom (see dio cocceianus) in Rome. His speaking tours took him to Athens, Corinth, and Ionia, where he contracted a bitter feud with his fellow sophist *Polemon (4). He was a friend of *Plutarch, and the teacher and associate of *Herodes Atticus, *Cornelius Fronto, and Aulus *Gellius (who quotes and refers to him frequently in the Noctes Atticae). At Rome he moved in the circle of the emperor *Hadrian, was advanced to the rank of an eques, and held the office of a provincial high priest. About 130ce he fell into disfavour, although it is disputed whether or not he was exiled. Under Antoninus Pius he recovered his status and influence.

Article

M. J. Edwards

In *Pindar (fr. 292 SnellMaehler) and *Bacchylides (5. 16ff) flight is a metaphor for elevation of poetic style. The philosopher *Parmenides (DK 28 B 1) spoke of his own ascent to knowledge as a journey in a heavenly chariot, and the mind's capacity to explore the universe was adduced by later thinkers as a proof of its innate divinity (Pl.Tht.173; Xen.Mem. 1. 4. 17, etc. ). When the *soul was conceived as separable, the image could be taken literally: in *Plato (1)'s Phaedrus (246c–248c) a pageant of celestial chariots is an allegory for the initial state of souls, and in such works as Cicero'sSomnium Scipionis ascent to the stars is the destiny of the good soul after death. Cicero depends on Plato's Timaeus (41d–e), perhaps through *Posidonius (2); but *Maximus (1) of Tyre appeals to the legend of *Aristeas as evidence that the soul is immortal and capable of flight (10.

Article

G. Herman

Friendship, ritualized (or guest-friendship), a bond of trust, imitating kinship and reinforced by rituals, generating affection and obligations between individuals belonging to separate social units. In Greek sources this bond is called xenia, xeiniē, and xeineiē; in Latin, hospitium. The individuals joined by the bond (usually men of approximately equal social status) are said to be each other's xenos or hospes. As the same terms designated guest-host relationships, xenia and hospitium have sometimes been interpreted in modern research as a form of hospitality. Xenia, hospitium, and hospitality do overlap to some extent but the former relationships display a series of additional features which assimilate them into the wider category called in social studies ritualized personal relationships, or pseudo-kinship. The analogy with kinship did not escape the notice of the ancients themselves. According to the *AristotelianMagna Moralia, xenia was the strongest of all the relationships involving affection (philia) (2.

Article

Gorgias of Leontini, orator, c. 485–c. 380 bce, was one of the most well-known and influential of the early Greek rhetoricians. He spent much of his life as an itinerant speaker and reputed educator throughout Greece and contributed to the early development of the art of speech. His extant works include two complete speeches, Encomium of Helen and Defense of Palamedes, and ancient authors also summarize, provide fragments from, or report several additional works: On What-Is-Not, a Funeral Speech, a Pythian Speech, an Olympian Speech, a Speech for the People of Elis, a treatise on the “opportune moment” or kairos, and some manuals of rhetoric.Gorgias of Leontini, orator, c.485–c. 380bce, became one of the most well-known and influential figures of the early, 5th-century generation of thinkers credited with developing and marketing skills, principles, and ideas related to the burgeoning art of speech. Nothing secure is recorded about the events of his early life, although he must have achieved some degree of eminence and respect in .

Article

Ewen Bowie

The idea that eastern, non-Greek sages living a life close to nature possessed a special sort of wisdom first entered the Greek imaginaire when Alexander’s expedition to India was reported in the narratives of Onesicritus, Megasthenes, and Nearchus. Megasthenes (ap. Strabo 15.1.59.712) distinguished Brahmans (Βραχμᾶνες), royal counsellors (executed by Alexander when he suppressed the revolt of Sambus, whom they had encouraged, Arr. Anab. 6.16.5, 6.17.2), from ascetic “Gymnosophists” or Garmanes (i.e., Buddhist Sramans). Onesicritus claimed to have been sent by Alexander to meet the latter, to have conversed with two called Dandamis and Calanus, and to have requested them to come to Alexander (Strabo 15.1.63–65.715–716, Plut. Alex. 64–65, Arr. Anab. 7.2.2–4). This they did, probably at Taxila, where Aristobulus claimed to have seen an older and a younger gymnosophist standing as they dined at Alexander’s table (Strabo 15.1.61.714).The episode has been seen as a fiction of Onesicritus,1 but Arrian’s report of a logos about Alexander meeting Indian sages (Anab.

Article

hubris  

N. R. E. Fisher

Hubris, intentionally dishonouring behaviour, was a powerful term of moral condemnation in ancient Greece; and in Athens, and perhaps elsewhere, it was also treated as a serious crime. The common use of hubris in English to suggest pride, over-confidence, or alternatively any behaviour which offends divine powers, rests, it is now generally held, on misunderstanding of ancient texts, and concomitant and over-simplified views of Greek attitudes to the gods have lent support to many doubtful, and often over-Christianizing, interpretations, above all of Greek tragedy.The best ancient discussion of hubris is found in *Aristotle's Rhetoric: his definition is that hubris is ‘doing and saying things at which the victim incurs shame, not in order that one may achieve anything other than what is done, but simply to get pleasure from it. For those who act in return for something do not commit hubris, they avenge themselves. The cause of the pleasure for those committing hubris is that by harming people, they think themselves superior; that is why the young and the rich are hubristic, as they think they are superior when they commit hubris’ (Rh.

Article

James I. Porter

Materialism, the belief that matter is a primary constituent of reality, is a constant feature of ancient Greek and Roman thought, and also one of its most contested and productive ideas: matter was a never-ending source of fascination and ambivalence in antiquity, while modernity inherited these same obsessions. Homer is an intuitive materialist. Later philosophers were divided over the definition and value of matter. Because a “pure” definition of matter proved so difficult to maintain in any coherent fashion, cross-overs between materialism and immaterialism, mostly unacknowledged, were the rule in antiquity. Immaterialism gradually gained the upper hand, thanks to the offices of Platonism, then of Christianity, and, from the advent of the secular age, of classicism. But not even immaterialism could rid itself of the lures of matter. Only now are the attractions and complexities of matter and materialism in ancient thought and experience being appreciated once again.The belief in matter as a constituent of experience and reality was strongly rooted in Greek and Roman thought, but it was also highly contested. Matter was explicitly named for the first time by the earliest Greek philosophers, the so-called .

Article

Richard Hunter

Greek discussion of unified organic form, as both a biological principle and a literary virtue, has been very influential in Western criticism. What survives before late antiquity of that Greek tradition as applied to literature is, however, relatively sparse; crucial above all are the Homeric poems and ancient discussion of them, together with some passages of Plato and Aristotle. The fact that the bulk of later surviving criticism derives from rhetorical teaching, heavily indebted to the Isocratean tradition, means that much greater prominence is given to the closely related ideas of variety (poikilia) and the avoidance of monotony over the course of a long work, and to the arrangement and ordering (taxis) of narrative than to “unity”; there is no standard term for “unity” in Greek criticism.Homer announces the subject of the Iliad as the wrath of Achilles, which wrought terrible destruction upon the Greeks, but, however dominant the story of the wrath and its consequences, the scope of the poem is clearly not limited to that subject. Reflection upon the Iliad stands at the beginning and the heart of ancient discussion of unity, and it is the Iliad that shows why “unity” and “variety” are entirely compatible in ancient criticism.

Article

Peripatetic author from Callatis (Mangalia, Romania). Works: (1)Bioi (Lives) of kings, statesmen, orators, philosophers, and poets, known chiefly from citations by *Athenaeus (1) and *Diogenes (6) Laertius. POxy. 1176 preserves a substantial fragment on *Euripides from book 6, which also covered *Aeschylus and *Sophocles (1). Satyrus evidently used a *dialogue form; though the style is agreeable, the approach is unscholarly, material being drawn from comedy and anecdote, and from passages in Euripides' plays uncritically treated as autobiographical.(2)Peri characteron (On characters); the one fragment, a passage quoted by Athenaeus (4. 168e), exhibits the moralistic propensity observable in the fragments of the Lives. (Other authors of the same name should be credited with works On the*demesof*Alexandria(1) (FGrH631, cf. POxy. 2465 (RE18), on myths (RE19; see next entry), and on gems (RE20).