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Hippocrates (2) of *Cos, probably a contemporary of Socrates (469–399 bce), was the most famous physician of antiquity and one of the least known. The important early corpus of medical writings bears his name (see medicine, § 4), but many scholars insist that he cannot be confidently connected with any individual treatise, let alone with any specific doctrines. He remains for many a ‘name without a work’, in the words of Wilamowitz; and even in antiquity the nature of his personal contributions to medicine were the subject of speculation.All kinds of anecdotes and medical doctrines have been connected at different times to the name of Hippocrates. One influential ancient biographical tradition, represented by a Life of Hippocrates (attributed to *Soranus of Ephesus and probably a source for several much later commentators including the Byzantine scholar Johannes *Tzetzes), maintains that he was taught medicine by his father and by the gymnastic trainer Herodicus of Selymbria (see dietetics), and that he sat at the feet of the sophist *Gorgias(1) of Leontini, the eponym of *Plato (1)'s dialogue.

Article

In geometry he was first to show that the cube duplication is equivalent to finding two mean proportionals between lines in the given ratio. He also constructed rectilinear figures equal to three forms of ‘lunules’ (mēniskoi), figures bounded by two circular arcs, alone or in combination with a circle (a problem related to the quadrature of the circle). A long fragment from *Eudemus on these quadratures is reported by Simplicius (in Phys. 1. 2, ed. Diels, 60–9). According to Proclus, Hippocrates was first to compile an ‘Elements’ of geometry, which would appear to have anticipated substantial parts of *Euclid's books 1, 3, and 6. In *astronomy, Hippocrates was known for a theory of comets, reported by Aristotle (Mete. 1. 6).

Article

Laurence Totelin

The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of around sixty medical texts, the majority of which were written in the fifth and fourth century BCE. While they are attributed to the physician Hippocrates of Cos, their authenticity has been debated since antiquity.The Hippocratic texts are varied in style and in content, and sometimes present contradictory views. As a result, it is difficult to give a strict definition of what constitutes Hippocratic medicine. Broadly, it is a techne, in which dietetics and prognostication play important roles, and in which diseases are considered to have natural causes.The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of approximately sixty medical texts, all in the Ionic Greek dialect, attributed to Hippocrates of Cos, the famous physician mentioned by Plato (Phdr. 270c) and Aristotle (Pol. 1326a15). Since antiquity, it has been recognized that Hippocrates could not have authored all those texts, which vary vastly in style and sometimes present contradictory views. Most Hippocratic treatises can be dated to the .

Article

honey  

Robert Sallares

Honey (μέλι; mel), the chief sweetener known to the ancients, who understood apiculture (Arist.Hist. an. 623b5–627b22; Verg. G. bk. 4) and appreciated the different honey-producing qualities of flowers and localities. Thyme honey from *Hymettus in Attica was very famous, both for its pale colour and sweet flavour; Corsican, harsh and bitter; Pontic, poisonous and inducing madness (Dioscorides, Materia medica 2. 101–3). Honey was used in cooking, confectionery, and as a preservative. It was used in medicines, e.g. for coughs, ulcers, and intestinal parasites (Theophr. Hist. pl. 9. 11. 3, 18. 8). It had a very important role in religion, cult, and mythology. Its religious associations derive from the idea that it was a ros caelestis (‘heavenly dew’), which fell on to flowers from the upper air for bees to gather (Arist.Hist. an. 553b29–30). According to poets it dripped from trees in the *golden age (Ov.

Article

humours  

J. T. Vallance

The words strictly suggest some kind of fluid substance and can be used of the sap in plants, but they are most commonly found in medical contexts. The explanation of disease—and even human behaviour—in terms of the interactions and relative proportions of fluids in the body is a very ancient one. In some Hippocratic treatises (see hippocrates(2)) the more general term ὑγρά (‘moistures’) is used as an alternative. At this level of generality there is little to distinguish many different pathological theories, but in practice there was little agreement as to which fluids counted as humours, and which were the most important. Many different kinds of humoral theory were in circulation. Most influential were those which related the qualities of the humours to qualities which had been associated with the Empedoclean *elements, where earth, water, *fire, and air were sometimes analysed in terms of hot, cold, wet, dry. This in turn enabled a correlation to be made with the four seasons. *Galen gives the four humours of the Hippocratic treatise On the Nature of Man—blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile—a special status which they continued to enjoy.

Article

Wilbur R. Knorr

Hydrostatics, a special field of *statics, within the geometric theory of *mechanics, deals with the properties of weights in fluid media, and in particular with the conditions for stability of floating bodies. The basic principles and their application are from *Archimedes in the two books On Floating Bodies (Περὶ ὀχουμένων). Archimedes here demonstrates that a floating body displaces a volume of fluid equal to its own weight (book 1, prop. 5) and proves the stability of floating spherical segments (props. 8–9) and the conditions of density and shape entailing the stability of floating paraboloidal segments (book 2). The analogue for bodies denser than the medium, that is, that their weight when immersed in the fluid is reduced by an amount equal to the weight of the displaced fluid (book 1, prop. 7), can be extended into a procedure for determining specific weights, as in the hydrostatic balance attributed to Archimedes in the *Carmen de ponderibus.

Article

Hypatia  

Henriette Harich-Schwarzbauer

The philosopher Hypatia (350/370–415 ce) is one of the outstanding figures in the intellectual life of Late Antiquity. She is considered a symbol of the transformation of science and philosophy under the Christian bishops in Alexandria at the end of the 4th century ce. Her life and her works are well documented in different literary genres and by famous authors, namely by Synesius of Cyrene in his letters. The extant testimonies on her work prove that she was the guiding light of astronomy in Alexandria, where she was held in high esteem. Unsurprisingly, she became the target of aggression, and she was murdered ferociously in 415. Hypatia has been commemorated in the Byzantine and the Western traditions. She has experienced an impressive revival since the Enlightenment; even in the 21st century she is depicted as a heroine in fiction and film.Hypatia appears to have spent her entire life in her hometown of .

Article

J. T. Vallance

The English transliteration of the Greek word ὑπόθεσις can conceal something of the variety of senses this term has in ancient contexts. Etymologically it suggests ‘the basis upon which something else is grounded’. In Greek the term may be applied to the summary of the plot of a play (see hypothesis, literary), a political or legal proposal, a topic to be discussed, a proposition to be proved, an unprovable assumption which is the basis for deduction, an acceptable supposition which its author may or may not choose to prove, or a fully fledged model or system of explanation which permits further work. *Ptolemy(4) can describe his model of the wandering heavenly bodies, for example, as his ‘hypotheses’ of the planets. Strict logical senses of the term can be traced back at least to *Plato(1) and *Aristotle; Aristotle defines a hypothesis as a thesis which assumes either part of a contradiction as a basis for further deduction (An.

Article

Hypsicles of Alexandria was a Greek mathematician and astronomer who flourished around 190 bce. Two of his works are known to us: the first sets out a linear arithmetical scheme for computing the rising times of zodiacal signs (ascensions) and the second is a continuation of Euclid’s Elements which became known as Book XIV. The latter work contains a detailed study, in eight propositions and various lemmas, of the comparison between a dodecahedron and an icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere. This work was close to Euclid’s work in style and format and, because of this, became a part of the textual tradition of the Elements.Hypsicles, of Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer (fl. c.190bce), wrote:(1)Book XIV added to Euclid’s Elements. This contains interesting propositions and historical information about relationships between the regular dodecahedron and icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere.(2)On Rising Times.

Article

Courtney Ann Roby

Ancient Greek and Roman scientific and technical works, especially in the exact sciences, were much more commonly illustrated than texts in other genres. The images in those texts ranged from the relatively abstract diagrams in mathematical, astronomical, and harmonic texts to the more pictorial images of botanical, medical, and surveying texts. For the most part, the images that survive are found in medieval manuscript copies. Although there are often striking variations from one manuscript to another, and the parchment or paper codex offers very different possibilities for illustrations than the papyrus rolls on which the ancient texts would originally have been composed, the texts themselves often offer clues about the author’s intentions for the images that accompanied the text.

Illustrations ranging from schematic diagrams to veristic pictorial images are found in surviving copies of many Greek and Roman works on mechanics, harmonics, surveying, medicine, zoology, pharmacology, and other technical subjects.

Article

Miko Flohr

The Greek, Hellenistic and Roman worlds were characterized by a culture of knowledge that fostered and celebrated innovation and invention. Greeks and Romans not only embraced technological practices developed elsewhere in earlier periods, maximizing their use, but also saw the diffusion of a broad range of inventions and innovations in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, transport, and communication. These innovations not only had a tangible impact on everyday material culture, but also supported the increasingly complex social, economic and political networks that came to characterize the ancient Mediterranean.

Graeco-Roman antiquity was a pre-industrial and agrarian society. It had limited means to circulate knowledge, and there were structural constraints on the emergence and diffusion of innovations compared to the early modern and modern world. At the same time, the Graeco-Roman world grew into an increasingly vast and complex conglomerate of social, political, and economic networks that facilitated (and fostered) innovation more than ever before, which resulted in significant change in technological practice and a well-developed consumer culture in which invention and knowledge could be appreciated and celebrated.

Article

lead  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Is mined in part for the extraction of *silver from its ores. Some of the major sources in the Greek world were located at *Laurium in *Attica, on *Siphnos, and in *Macedonia. There were extensive workings in Anatolia (see asia minor). In the western Mediterranean, lead was mined on *Sardinia and in Etruria (see etruscans). Roman extraction took place in *Spain, *Gaul, and *Britain. Stamped lead ‘pigs’ show that lead was being extracted from the Mendips shortly after the Roman invasion of Britain (CIL 7. 1201). In the late empire lead mines were operating in the Balkans. Lead isotope analysis has allowed different sources to be identified. Thus lead from Archaic deposits in Laconia, as well as traces identified in Roman skeletal material from Britain, can be traced back to Laurium.Buildings associated with the extraction of silver from the argentiferous lead ore have been excavated at Laurium. Litharge (the by-product of this process) has been found in protogeometric and even bronze age contexts. In the Greek world lead was used to form the core of bronze handles, to fix steles to their bases, and for small offerings (such as those found in the sanctuary of *Artemis Orthia at *Sparta).

Article

Leucippus (3), originator of the atomic theory in the second half of the 5th cent. bce. His birthplace is reported to be *Elea, *Abdera, or *Miletus (Diog. Laert. 9. 30), but all of these may be inferences from affinities between his work and that of philosophers known to come from these places; Miletus is slightly more probable than the others. He wrote later than *Parmenides, and almost certainly later than *Zeno (1) and *Melissus. *Epicurus is said to have denied his existence (Diog. Laert. 10. 13), but this is not to be taken seriously, in the face of *Aristotle's frequent mentions of him.

Of the Democritean works (see democritus) collected by Thrasyllus (Diog. Laert. 9. 45–9), two are sometimes attributed to Leucippus: The Great World System and On Mind. Both attributions appear to stem from *Theophrastus and may well be right.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building of the 100-m. (328-ft.) tower on the Pharus island at *Alexandria (1), which gave its name to the architectural genre (c.300–280 bce, by Sostratus of *Cnidus (Strabo 17. 1. 6)), and the colossus of *Helios at *Rhodes (280 bce, by *Chares (4) of Lindus (Plin. HN 34. 41)): both so famous as to be reckoned among the *Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Beacon-fires made such monuments more visible by night as well as by day: but their function as signs of conquest and displays of prestige was as important. Claudius' lighthouse tower at *Portus, intended to rival the Pharus, became a symbol of Rome's port and its activities. The (partly preserved) lighthouse at Dover castle, and its opposite number at Boulogne (*Gesoriacum) suggested the taming of the Channel; another survives at La Coruña (*Brigantium) at the Atlantic extremity of Spain.

Article

madness  

Esther Eidinow

The idea that definitions of madness are culturally dependent has taken firm hold since Foucault's Madness and Civilisation, and is even recognized by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. (DSM-IV). In our own time, ‘madness’ describes imprecisely a multitude of apparent mental disorders; it may be used technically to indicate a physiological disorder, and/or, more colloquially, to describe an action that seems rash, unexpected or self-defeating. When we turn to madness in Greece and Rome, we find a similar range of meanings, with all the additional problems involved in interpreting the concepts of another, and ancient, culture. Although attempts have been made to relate ancient descriptions of mental disorder to modern diagnoses, this has largely been abandoned, except in cases of epilepsy, or, as it was known in ancient Greece, ‘the sacred disease’. In her analysis of the modern notion of ‘*hysteria', Helen King has powerfully demonstrated how ancient ‘evidence’ might be misread, distorted, even created in order to endow modern diagnoses with authority.

Article

Heinrich von Staden

Mantias (c. 165–85 bce), a physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus, was known to the Greeks as the influential first systematic writer on compound drugs (although such drug prescriptions predate Mantias by several millennia, being well attested in Mesopotamian and early Egyptian texts). It is uncertain whether his famous specialized pharmacological books, for example on purgatives, on draughts, on clysters, and ‘on remedies according to place’ (topical drugs), belonged to his Δυνάμεις (‘Powers’ or ‘Properties’ of drugs) and The Druggist (or?) In the Surgery (or On the Things in the Surgery). Many of his compound-drug remedies were found worthy of transmission by the pharmacologists Asclepiades the Younger (‘Pharmakion’) and Heras, by *Soranus, and in particular by *Galen. Like most Herophileans, Mantias was, however, no narrow specialist: he also wrote on pathology, regimen, and women's disorders (recommending, for example, musical therapy—flute-playing, drums—to ward off imminent *hysteria, but pharmacological agents once hysterical suffocation attacks the patient).

Article

marble  

Donald Emrys Strong and Hazel Dodge

Under μάρμαρος, marmor, the ancients included granites, porphyries, and all stones capable of taking a high polish. In the third millennium bce the white marbles of the Greek islands were used for Cycladic sculpture. The Minoans employed coloured marbles and breccias for vases and furniture and in architecture for facings and column bases. The Mycenaeans also used coloured marbles, including green porphyry and rosso antico, for furniture and architectural decoration. Neither used marble as a building stone or for sculpture.The fine white marbles of Greece and the Greek islands were widely used for architecture and sculpture from the 7th cent. bce onwards. Grey Naxian and white Parian, the best of the island marbles, were used for both sculpture and architecture; see naxos (1) and paros. The Pentelic quarries to the north-east of Athens (see Pentelicon) supplied a fine-grained marble for the *Parthenon and other 5th-cent. bce buildings in the city and its territory.

Article

Marcellinus (1), author of an extant work Περὶ σφυγμῶν, which incorporates much earlier work on the pulse.

Article

Antony Spawforth

Marcellus, physician and poet from *Side, lived under *Hadrian and *Antoninus Pius. Wrote On Medical Matters in 42 books of heroic metre; a work on werewolves (see lycanthropy); a poem About Fish (fragments preserved); and two funerary epigrams commissioned by Ti. *Claudius Atticus Herodes(2) to commemorate Regilla, his wife.

Article

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Marinus (c. 130 ce), anatomist, credited by *Galen with reviving anatomical studies (see anatomy and physiology) at *Alexandria(1).

(1) Ἀνατομικαὶ ἐγχειρήσεις (‘Practical Anatomy’); (2) an Anatomy in 20 books; (3) a book on the roots of the nerves; (4) an Anatomy of the muscles; (5) a commentary on aphorisms.