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Article

W. M. Murray

Amphissa, ‘the largest and most famous city of the [western, Ozolian] Locrians’ (Paus. 10. 38. 2; see locris). Its traditional policy being enmity with *Phocis and alliance with *Thebes (1), Amphissa played a leading part in the Third *Sacred War, and was reduced to dependence by *Onomarchus in 353 bce. After the collapse of Phocis, it initiated moves that resulted in the Fourth *Sacred War in which *Philip (1) II of Macedon captured the city and destroyed its walls (338). Amphissa joined in the defence of *Delphi against the Gauls in 279 and thereafter became Aetolian until freed by the Romans in 167. After *Actium (31 bce), the city was inhabited by Aetolian refugees and claimed henceforth to be Aetolian and not Locrian. The ancient city is securely identified with remains at modern Salona.

Article

Amyclae  

Arthur Maurice Woodward, William George Forrest, and Antony Spawforth

Amyclae, an ‘Achaean’ centre on the right bank of the Eurotas river c.5 km. (3 mi.) south of Sparta, mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue as in the domain of *Menelaus (1). Accounts vary of its resistance to the *Dorians but not later than c.750 bce it, and consequently the rest of southern *Laconia, fell. It was incorporated in Spartan territory as an oba (see sparta); in the 1st cent. bce it had its own village-administration (IG 5. 1. 26). Remains of the famous sanctuary (from the 8th cent. bce) and throne of *Apollo Amyclaeus (see hyacinthus) have been excavated on the hill of H. Kyriaki; a deposit of over 10,000 archaic votives shows that Alexandra-*Cassandra was worshipped near by.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Anactorium, a joint colony of Corinthians and Acarnanians (see corinth; acarnania) was founded c.620 bce on the south coast of the gulf of *Ambracia. It sent troops to fight in the battle of *Plataea against the Persians. In 425 Anactorium was absorbed into *Acarnania.

Article

Anagnia  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Anagnia (mod. Anagni), chief town of the *Hernici (Aen. 7. 684), in the fertile Sacco valley, with well-preserved walls. In 306 bce Anagnia became a civitas sine suffragio (see municipium) which *Pyrrhus and *Hannibal later ravaged (Livy 9. 42 f., 26. 9; App. Sam. 10). In the 2nd cent. it acquired full citizenship (Festus 155 Lindsay) and remained a municipium under the empire (reject Lib. colon. p. 230). Vitellius' general *Fabius Valens and Commodus' concubine *Marcia were born here (Tac. Hist. 3. 62; ILS 406). The numerous temples near Anagnia were still celebrated in Marcus *Aurelius' time (Fronto, Ep. 4. 4); some have been identified, including one that dates back at least to the 6th cent. bce.

Article

Ancona  

Max Cary and T. W. Potter

Ancona, an important Picene town (see picenum), occupied from at least as early as the 9th cent. bce, and with the only good harbour on the central east coast of Italy. The colony was founded in 387 bce by Greek refugees from *Dionysius (1) I of Syracuse. It prospered under the republic, and became the main port of embarkation for Dalmatia. *Trajan rebuilt the harbour and erected a commemorative arch about it (ce 115), which still stands.

Article

Ancyra  

Stephen Mitchell

Ancyra (mod. Ankara), a settlement in the part of central Asia Minor occupied by the Galatian Tectosagan tribe, which became the most important city of the province of *Galatia after 25 bce. The Roman city was built on the west side of a strong acropolis, still dominated by fine Byzantine fortifications. Its buildings include the temple of Rome and Augustus, which carries a virtually complete text of the *Res gestae of Augustus (the Monumentum Ancyranum), a theatre, and a large gymnasium of the later 2nd or 3rd cent.

Article

Andros  

R. W. V. Catling

Andros, the most northerly and (after *Naxos (1)) second largest (380 sq. km; 147 sq. mi.) of the *Cyclades, its windswept, mountainous landscape mitigated by sheltered, fertile valleys. Gaureion in the north-west is the only safe harbour. Its prehistory is obscure. Settled by Ionians c.900 bce, it had connections with the Thessalo-Euboean region in the geometric period. The fortified town of Zagora, occupying a bleak headland on the SW coast, first occupied c.900 bce, was largely deserted c.700 bce; a small temple still survived c.400 bce. The close-packed buildings may have housed a population as large as 2,500. Besides the evidence for 8th-cent. domestic architecture, much may be learnt about Zagora's economy and contemporary society. Another 8th-cent. town has been discovered at Ipsili. The Classical city of Andros on the south coast (mod. Palaiopolis) occupied the steep slopes of a mountainside, served by an inadequate harbour. Although the earliest remains are late Archaic, it was probably first settled early in the 7th cent., perhaps by the inhabitants of deserted geometric towns such as Zagora. Late in the century Andros founded colonies at *Acanthus, *Stagira, and Sane in *Chalcidice and at Argilus in east Macedonia.

Article

Anio  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Anio (mod. Aniene), a river of Italy rising in the Sabine country (see sabini) and separating it from *Latium (Plin. HN 3. 54). After flowing 120 km. (75 mi.) west-south-west it joins the *Tiber at the site of Antemnae just north of Rome. Landslides in ce 105 and later have changed but not destroyed its spectacular cascades at *Tibur (Hor.

Article

John Buckler

Anthedon, harbour town on the NE coast of *Boeotia, known for the legend of *Glaucus (4) the fisherman. The remains of circuit-walls and harbour installations can still be seen. Generally a part of Theban territory, it probably served as one of the bases of *Epaminondas' ephemeral fleet during the Theban Hegemony.

Article

Alfred Hiatt

The terms antipodes and antichthones, along with others such as antoikoi and perioikoi, referred to hypothetical peoples dwelling beyond the extent of the known world. These terms were the product of a mathematically based astronomy in which the spherical nature of the Earth was a fundamental element. Calculations of the size of the Earth resulted in the conjecture that inhabited land existed beyond the known world of Asia, Europe, and Africa/Libya. Such land was usually thought to be inaccessible owing to the expanse of Ocean, or because of the extremes of heat and cold found, respectively, at the Equator and the poles.The concept of the antipodes appears to have emerged from Pythagorean thought. Pythagoras was credited with the doctrine that inhabitation was not restricted to the known world, and specifically that there were inhabitants on the opposite side of the Earth, whose “down” was “up” for those in the known world; certain Pythagoreans conceived of an antichthon, or counter-Earth, in relation to the known world (Diog. Laert., Vitae Philosophorum 8.

Article

W. M. Murray

Anticyra, an excellent Phocian port in the gulf east of *Cirrha, known for the hellebore (a medicinal plant) that grew nearby. Identified by Pausanias (10. 36. 5–10) with Homeric Cyparissus, it shared the history of *Phocis, being destroyed in 346 bce by *Philip (1) II, then rebuilt, and finally captured by T.

Article

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

A nome capital (see nomos (1)) of Middle Egypt east of the Nile, founded in ce 130 by Hadrian in memory of *Antinous (2) on a necropolis containing a temple of Rameses II. The via Hadriana linked it to the Red Sea. Its Greek constitution, modelled on that of *Naucratis, gave exemption from *liturgies elsewhere. Veterans and Hellenes from *Ptolemais (2) were enrolled. *Diocletian made it capital of the Thebaid. Considerable remains of public buildings survived in 1800. See alimenta.

Article

Antissa  

D. Graham J. Shipley

Antissa, small coastal *polis in NW *Lesbos; birthplace of the poet *Terpander. A bronze age site has been explored; the Classical town originated in the early geometric period. Three apsidal buildings (possibly temples), stretches of a probable city wall, and remains of a harbour mole have been identified. The Mytileneans strengthened the defences during their revolt of 428 bce (see mytilene). *Thrasybulus captured the town c.389; later it joined the *Second Athenian Confederacy. The Romans destroyed it in 166 bce because of its links with *Antiochus (4) IV, and its territory was given to *Methymna. In medieval times it moved inland.

Article

Antium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 72; Polyb. 3. 22), but shortly thereafter *Volsci captured it, and for 200 years Antium was apparently the principal Volscian city. In the 4th cent. bce it was the centre of Volscian resistance to Rome, that ended only when C. *Maenius captured the Antiate fleet and made possible the establishment of a citizen colony (see colonization, roman), 338 bce (Livy, bks. 2–8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. bks. 4–10). Antiate pirates, however, continued active even after 338 (Strabo 5. 232). After being sacked by C. *Marius (1), Antium became a fashionable resort (Augustus had a villa here), with celebrated temples (App. Bciv. 1. 69, 5. 26; Hor. Carm.

Article

Apamea  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Apamea, a city on the *Orontes, *Syria, which replaced the Macedonian military colony of Pella. It was founded by Seleucus I (or perhaps Antiochus I). It was the military headquarters of Seleucid Syria, and the place where Seleucid breeding of *elephants (for war) is attested (Strabo 16. 2. 10). During the Principate it ruled a large territory; its citizen population numbered 117,000 under Augustus. Excavation has revealed mainly buildings and finds of the imperial period. See apame.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Apennines, Italy's limestone mountain backbone, branch off from the Alps near Genoa (*Genua). At first they are of moderate height (900–1,200 m.; 3,000–4,000 ft.), and run eastwards forming the southern boundary of *Cisalpine Gaul (Northern Apennines); then, near *Ariminum, they turn south-east, follow the line of the Adriatic coast and attain great altitudes - 2,921 m. (9,583 ft.) at the Gran Sasso (Central Apennines); approaching *Lucania they become lower again, swing south and occupy virtually all SW Italy (Southern Apennines: the granite Sila mountains of the Bruttian peninsula (see bruttii), although geologically distinct, are generally reckoned a prolongation of the limestone Apennines. Italy's volcanic mountains, however—*Albanus, *Vesuvius, Vultur—are independent of the Apennine system). The 1,300-km. (800-mi.) Apennine chain is not continuous and unbroken, but consists of tangled mountain masses of varying width, interspersed with numerous upland passes and fertile valleys suitable for agriculture or summer pasturage. Offshoots are numerous, e.g. Apuan Alps (Liguria; see ligurians), Volscian mountains (*Latium); some are completely separated from the main range, e.

Article

Joyce Reynolds

Aphrodisias (mod. Geyre), was a *Carian city, probably established in the 2nd cent. bce as the political centre of ‘the Plarasans and Aphrodisians’ (Plarasans dropped from the description under Augustus); site of vigorous prehistoric and Archaic communities honouring a mother-goddess, called Aphrodite perhaps from the 3rd cent. bce and later identified with Roman Venus. That identification encouraged a special relationship with Rome and with the family of *Caesar; so Aphrodisias resisted *Mithradates (6) VI in 88 bce and the Liberators after Caesar's death, earning privileges which Rome conferred in 39 bce and confirmed up to the late 3rd cent. ce. The wall-circuit, c.3.5 km. (2.2 mi.) long and containing many inscribed blocks reused, a stadium, and columns have always been visible; excavation has now uncovered civic buildings and much sculpture, which is sometimes distinguished and often technically interesting—see aphrodisias, school of. Intellectual pursuits were prized too—famous Aphrodisians included the novelist *Chariton, the philosophers *Adrastus (2) and *Alexander (14), and, in the late 5th cent.

Article

Max Cary and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Apollonia, the name of several Greek cities (IACP nos.13, 77, 545, 627, 682). The chief of these was in Illyria (IACP no. 77), founded c.600 bce where the river Aous enters the coastal plain, with relatively easy communications across the Balkan range. It was founded as a Corinthian colony (see corinth; colonization, greek) by 200 settlers (Steph. Byz.) and grew rapidly in size and prosperity, until it was able to destroy one of its neighbours, Thronium, by the middle of the 5th cent. In the Hellenistic period its strategic position and its wealth attracted the Macedonian, Molossian, and Illyrian kings and also *Corcyra. It joined Rome in 229 bce, was treated as a *free city and prospered greatly as the main base of Roman armies in the wars against Macedon. After 146 it was one of the terminal points of the *via Egnatia, and it was *Caesar's headquarters in the campaign of Dyrrhachium (48).

Article

Apulia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Apulia (mod. Puglia), a region of SE Italy corresponding to Augustan *Regio II, bounded by the valleys of the Bradano and Tiferno. Regio II also included a part of *Samnium which was not Apulian in culture (Plin. HN 3. 99–104). It is geographically diverse, with lagoonal and marshy coastal regions and a high plateau, the Tavoliere, in the north. Ethnically, it included the *Daunians, Peucetians, and *Iapygians (Lat. Sallentini). These were Messapian in language and culture (see messapic; messapii), and part of a cultural *koinē which included strong Greek and Illyrian influences. Many cities have Greek foundation legends, issued Greek-style coinage, and adopted Greek styles and techniques in architecture and civic development. Some of the northerly Daunian cities also show Oscan influence. The Apuli, after whom the region is named, were a distinct group settled near mons *Garganus, who had cultural similarities with their Daunian neighbours but were Oscan-speakers (Strabo 6. 3. 11). Apulia was one of the most densely urbanized regions of Italy. Economically, southern Apulia was reliant on agriculture and trade with Greece and Illyria, while the Tavoliere was a *wool-producing area.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Aquileia, a city a few kilometres from the head of the Adriatic. In 186 bce Transalpine Gauls occupied this fertile site, which controls roads across the Julian Alps. Rome ejected them and founded a Latin colony (181 bce; see ius latii) to forestall similar intrusions and to exploit neighbouring gold-mines (Livy 39. 22, 54; 40. 34). Aquileia became a great military, commercial, and industrial stronghold; its *amber trade was especially important (Strabo 4. 207 f.; 5. 214). In imperial times it was a colonia, sometimes dubbed Roma secunda, the capital of Venetia et Istria, and one of the world's largest cities, with a population that perhaps approached 100,000. It had major harbour facilities, and important early Christian basilicas. When the city was sacked by *Attila in 452, many fled to the neighbouring lagoons of Venice. It was however an important medieval patriarchate, especially from the 9th cent. Ancient remains are numerous.