6,461-6,480 of 6,581 Results

Article

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Marcus Vinicius (*suffect consul 19 bce), a *novus homo from *Cales in *Campania, is first mentioned as legate (see legati) of *Augustus in Gaul (25 bce). In *Illyricum (13 bce, perhaps as proconsul; see pro consule) he and M. *Vipsanius Agrippa began the bellum Pannonicum (war in *Pannonia) terminated by *Tiberius (12–9). Vinicius is next (and last) heard of in ce 1 or 2 as commander of the Rhine army. The acephalous ( = top missing) elogium from *Tusculum, recording operations against Transdanubian peoples (ILS 8965 = EJ 43a) is now generally attributed to Vinicius, but the dating and details of that campaign are uncertain (14–13, 10, and c.1 bce have been suggested). The historian *Velleius Paterculus enjoyed the patronage of the Vinicii, dedicating his work to the grandson, M. Vinicius.

Article

M. Winterbottom

Publius Vinicius (consul ce 2), declaimer and orator, son of M. *Vinicius (above). An admirer of *Ovid, he was praised for his preciseness (Sen.Controv. 7. 5. 11, 10. 4. 25). He was proconsul (see pro consule) of Asia, and emerges under *Tiberius (Tac.

Article

Brian Campbell

Titus Vinius, influential associate of *Galba and his colleague as consul in 69 ce, had been imprisoned while military tribune (see tribuni militum) in Germany in 39 on the charge of adultery with his commanding officer's wife. Released by *Claudius he served as legionary legate but incurred further disgrace for allegedly stealing a gold cup at the emperor's banquet. Nevertheless his subsequent governorship of Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)) was creditable. He was in Spain when Galba rebelled, possibly commanding legio VI Victrix (see legion). Unscrupulous and cunning, he urged the adoption of *Otho, but was nevertheless murdered along with Galba by Otho's troops. *Tacitus(1) is probably mistaken in giving his age as 57 (Hist. 1. 48), which would mean that he was unusually old (28) during his military tribunate.

Article

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and granddaughter of T. *Pomponius Atticus. Married to *Tiberius, she bore him a son, Nero *Claudius Drusus, but he was forced by Augustus, against his will, to divorce her and marry Julia (see iulia(3)) in 12 bce. She then married C.

Article

Vipsania Agrippina (2), ‘the Elder Agrippina’ (c.14 bce–33 ce), the daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and of *Iulia ((3), daughter of *Augustus). She married *Germanicus (probably in ce 5), to whom she bore nine children. She was with Germanicus on the Rhine from 14 to 16 and in the east from 18 until his death in the following year. From 19 to 29 she lived in Rome, the rallying point of a party of senators who opposed the growing power of Sejanus (see aelius seianus, l.). With *Tiberius, whom she suspected (without evidence) of causing her husband's death, her relations were consistently bad, and he refused her request in 26 for leave to marry again. She was arrested in 29 on the instruction of Tiberius and banished by the senate to Pandateria (cf. islands), where she starved to death in 33.

Article

Geoffrey Walter Richardson, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the lifelong friend and supporter of *Augustus, was born in 64, 63, or even 62 bce of obscure but probably well-to-do family (he neglected his undistinguished family name). He accompanied Octavius (the future Octavian and Augustus) to Rome from *Apollonia after *Caesar's murder, helped him to raise a private army, prosecuted *Cassius in the court set up by Q. *Pedius in 43, and was prominent in the war against L. *Antonius (Pietas). After holding the tribunate of the plebs (see tribuni plebis) in 43 or a little later, and so entering the *senate, he was urban praetor in 40. As governor of Gaul in 38 he suppressed a rebellion in *Aquitania, led a punitive expedition across the Rhine, and either now or in 20 settled the *Ubii on the left bank. As consul (37) he fitted out and trained a new fleet for Octavian's war against Sextus *Pompeius, converting the lacus *Avernus near *Cumae into a harbour (portus Iulius) for the purpose, and in 36 won two decisive naval engagements at Mylae and Naulochus, where his improved grapnel was highly effective.

Article

Howard Hayes Scullard and Barbara Levick

Vipstanus Messalla, great-grandson of M. *Valerius Messalla Messallinus, military tribune in 69 ce (see tribuni militum), took temporary command of Legio VII Claudia (see legion) at the battle of *Cremona. He was perhaps a source for the account of the campaign in *Tacitus (1), who names him twice (Hist.

Article

Virgil  

Fiachra Mac Góráin, Don P. Fowler, and Peta G. Fowler

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70–19 bce) was a Latin poet, already celebrated in his own lifetime, who wrote during the triumviral period and the principate of Augustus. All his poems reflect on contemporary history while engaging with a range of literary traditions from the archaic to the contemporary neoteric. Virgil achieved renown as a poet c. 39–38 bce with the publication of the Eclogues (or Bucolics), which take after Theocritus’s Idylls. He went on to write the Georgics, a didactic poem ostensibly about farming (29 bce), and the Aeneid, a heroic epic in the Homeric manner about the Trojan refugee Aeneas’s flight from Troy and his struggles to found a city that would be the origin of Rome. Several minor poems collected in the Appendix Vergiliana are attributed to Virgil, but were probably not written by him. His work set the standard for Latinity and inspired many later imitators and artistic and critical responses.

Article

Ernst Badian and Christoph F. Konrad

Viriatus (c. 180–139 bce), a Lusitanian shepherd (see lusitania), escaped from the massacre of Ser. *Sulpicius Galba(1) (150), rallied his people, and became their war-leader (by 147). Exploiting Roman commitments in Africa and Greece (until 145), he strove to preserve Lusitanian independence from Roman rule. With small guerrilla forces and skilful use of terrain and ambush, he defeated a series of Roman commanders—in both Further and Hither Spain—and won the co-operation (143) of Celtiberian tribes (out of which arose the Numantine War; see numantia). After defeating Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus he refrained from destroying his army, securing instead a favourable peace (ratified by the Roman people) and recognition as an ally (140). But Fabius' successor, Cn. Servilius Caepio, persuaded the senate to authorize the resumption of hostilities, and through bribery contrived Viriatus' assassination; the Lusitanians soon surrendered (138). Viriatus remains a national hero in Portugal.

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of considerable military activity during the conquest and afterwards. Numerous forts have been found hereabouts. A fortress of Legio XIV Gemina (see legion) was established at Wroxeter c.ce 55 until 66. Its legion was reoccupied by Legio XX Valeria in ce 75, which remained in occupation until c.ce 83/4. After this the fortress site was developed as the civitas capital of the *Cornovii. Late 1st-cent. baths, perhaps intended for the legion, were left incomplete, to be swept away by *Hadrian, in whose reign a normal forum-basilica replaced them. The forum is dated by a dedication to Hadrian of ce 120–30 by the civitas Cornoviorum (RIB 288). Big new public baths, architecturally combined with a shopping precinct and large public latrine (see sanitation), were built shortly after ce 150; they were provided with a great open-air swimming bath and a covered exercise hall.

Article

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east of Klagenfurt. At first the site of a Celtic *oppidum, terraces on the hillside were occupied by more than three square kilometres of buildings, including a forum, a temple, and a centre for the imperial cult constructed by the Norican peoples under *Augustus. Most of the buildings are in the classical style and date from the late 1st cent. bce to the reign of *Claudius. From here the Norici were administered by a Roman *conventus organization and the place was also the centre of the *conciliumprovinciae. Under Claudius a *municipium was established at Virunum (CIL 3. 11555: municipium Claudium Virunum), enrolled in the voting-tribe Claudia. Until the establishment of the legionary fortress at *Lauriacum under Marcus *Aurelius, Virunum was the residence of the governing procurator.

Article

vis  

Andrew Lintott

Latin word, means neutrally ‘force’ and pejoratively ‘violence’. It is the latter sense that is treated here. For Greece see under violence.(a) Political Violence. Apart from the major non-violent secessions, ‘the Conflict of the Orders’ in the early republic (see rome (history), § 1.2) seems to have involved small-scale violence between the plebeians, defending each other and their tribunes, and the patricians supported by their clients (see cliens; patricians; plebs; secessio; tribuni plebis). However, in the last century of the republic violence became an ever increasing factor, not as a mass revolutionary movement, but as a political weapon largely exploited by magistrates for limited ends. The notion of a police authority was alien to republican thought and, if violence became serious, often the only counter was a state of emergency (see senatus consultum ultimum). From 78 bcevis was an offence under the leges Lutatia and Plautia.

Article

Aulus Vitellius, (15–69 ce), Roman emperor in 69, son of Lucius *Vitellius, an influential figure under the Julio-Claudians, was friendly with *Gaius(1), *Claudius, and *Nero. Consul in 48, he became proconsul of Africa (see pro consule; africa, roman), then served as legate (see legati) to his brother in the same post. *Galba appointed him governor of Lower Germany (see germania) in November 68, perhaps thinking that his reputed indolence made him less of a political threat. Vitellius won over the disaffected soldiers in the province by an ostentatious display of generosity. On 2 January 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor by his troops, and quickly won the support of the legions of Upper Germany, which had refused allegiance to Galba on 1 January. His main supporters were the legionary legates *Fabius Valens and A. *Caecina Alienus, and soon most of the western provinces and Africa were on his side.

Article

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Lucius Vitellius (consul 34 ce, consul for the second time in 43, and for the third in 47), son of P. Vitellius (a Roman knight from *Luceria (not Nuceria: RE Suppl. 9. 1741), *procurator of *Augustus), father of the emperor *Vitellius (see previous entry), was a friend of the emperor *Claudius and the most successful politician of the age: he received a public funeral and a statue in the Forum commemorating ‘unswerving devotion to the Princeps’ (Suet. Vit.3): it was indeed to the source of patronage and power that he attached himself, linking the history of three reigns; his position was strengthened by a nexus between Vitellii, Plautii, and Petronii. He was a vigorous legate (see legati) of *Syria (ce 35–7), inducing the Parthian *Artabanus II to pay homage and conciliating the Jews: ‘he acted with the integrity of ancient times’ (Tac. Ann.

Article

M. Winterbottom

Marcus Vitorius Marcellus, *suffect consul 105 ce, from Teate Marrucinorum (mod. Chieti), dedicatee both of *Quintilian'sInstitutio (intended as a manual for his son Geta and a son of Quintilian's own) and of *Statius' Silvae book 4 (see esp. the fourth poem, which reveals that he was a practising orator and alludes to his post as curator viae Latinae, official in charge of the *via Latina; see cura(tio), curator).

Article

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De architectura, on architecture and engineering, compiled partly from his own experience, partly from work by *Hermogenes(1) (to whom he is heavily indebted) and other Greek authors to which his own experiences have been added, sometimes in a disjointed fashion. It is hardly a handbook for *architects: rather a book for people who need to understand architecture. Perhaps its main function was place-seeking from Octavian (see augustus), to whom it is addressed. His outlook is essentially Hellenistic, and there is a marked absence of reference to important buildings of *Augustus' reign, though he knows of Roman technical developments, such as concrete construction (which he mistrusts). De architectura, the only work of its kind which has survived, is divided into ten books. Book 1 treats of town-planning, architecture in general, and of the qualifications proper in an architect; 2 of building-materials; 3 and 4 of temples and of the ‘orders’ (see orders, architectural; 5 of other civic buildings; 6 of domestic buildings; 7 of pavements and decorative plaster-work; 8 of water-supplies; 9 of geometry, mensuration, *astronomy, etc.

Article

J. T. Vallance

Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see hippocrates(2)) which are generally dated to the 5th or 4th cent. bce. (The passage in the Hippocratic treatise On the Heart describing the vivisection of a pig (9. 80 Littré) is generally dated to the 3rd cent. bce.) Physicians and zoologists from *Aristotle onwards do, however, seem to have vivisected animals and in some cases even humans. Practitioners themselves rarely show signs of concern with the morality of causing animals suffering in the name of knowledge, although such concern was voiced in other quarters (see animals, attitudes to and knowledge about).Two ancient physicians are notoriously connected with the practice of human vivisection. A. *Cornelius Celsus reports that the Alexandrian anatomists *Herophilus and *Erasistratus vivisected criminals provided for them by the king (see anatomy and physiology, § IV).

Article

Vix  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vix, a Hallstatt (late 6th-cent. bce) sepulchral mound by Mont Lassois (Côte-d'Or). Its rich grave goods, including a massive bronze Greek mixing-bowl, suggest the growing influence of the cities of the Mediterranean littoral (principally *Massalia) on the tribes of the Celtic hinterland.

Article

Spanish literary friend and correspondent of the Younger *Pliny(2), who said his letters read as if the Muses were speaking in Latin (Ep. 2. 13), and tried to advance his career. His family came from *Saguntum, and he rose to high office in his province. (PIR2 L210.

Article

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vocontii, a Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (see celts; gaul (transalpine)) who, from at least the 3rd cent. bce (Livy, 21. 31) occupied the western foothills of the Alps south of the *Allobroges. Under Roman control they remained a civitas foederata (see foedus) with the unusual arrangement of two capitals (Plin. HN 3. 37), each enjoying ius Latii. These were Vasio (mod. Vaison-la-Romaine) and Lucus Augusti (mod. Luc-en-Diois), while Die became Colonia Dea Augusta Vocontiorum (CIL 12. 690). Vaison, extensively—though not always well—excavated, appears to have originated in a hill-fort south of the Ouvèze, but the Roman town lay mainly north of the river (crossed by a Roman bridge) and the many fine structures uncovered include a theatre, the so-called portico of Pompey, and two groups of houses. Prominent citizens of Vasio were *Afranius Burrus, *Pompeius Trogus, and perhaps *Tacitus(1).