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Article

Anubis  

Richard Gordon

Anubis, one of several local divine guardians of the dead in Egypt, originally in the form of a jackal, later as a human figure with a dog's head. As lord of the necropolis, he supervised embalmment, and conducted the judgement of the dead. In Hellenistic times, identified with *Hermes, as Hermanubis (Plut.

Article

apex  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John North

Apex, a special kind of cap worn by Roman *flamines, *Salii, and some other priests. The word is said originally to have meant not the whole cap, but the spike or twig at the top of it, tied on with wool. The lower part of the head-dress was called the galerus and that of the flamen Dialis was the albogalerus, the white galerus, made of the skins of white victims sacrificed to *Jupiter.

Article

Apis  

Richard Gordon

Apis, the sacred bull at *Memphis in Egypt, oracular ‘herald’ of *Ptah (cf. Plin. HN 8. 185), with distinctive markings (Hdt 3. 28; Ael. NA 11. 10). The cult probably goes back to the earliest Old Kingdom. When the bull died, the body was embalmed and borne in procession to the subterranean ‘great chambers’ at Saqqara. Thousands of invocations found there, requesting Apis to bless life and name, testify to the cult's appeal to Egyptians. The embalmed bull was termed Osiris-Apis (Diod. Sic. 1. 85. 4; cf. Plut. De Is.

Article

Christopher Rowland

The apocalyptic literature composed by Jews and Christians in antiquity purports to offer information on God's purposes by means of revelation. In the apocalypses, understanding of God and the world is rooted in the claim to a superior knowledge in which insight of the divine through vision or audition transcends the wisdom of human reason. While an apocalyptic dimension has always formed a part of Jewish religion (evident in the material in the biblical literature which speaks of the prophet's access to the heavenly council), the writing of the extant Jewish apocalypses, most of which were preserved by Christians rather than Jews (mostly in Greek or in translations from the Greek), took place in the period from the career of *Alexander (3) the Great to the end of the *Bar Kockhba Revolt; they may best be understood as the form the prophetic tradition took at the end of the Second Temple period. The apocalypses are linked to the prophetic writings of the Hebrew Bible (the book of Daniel is an example), though their emphasis on heavenly knowledge and the interpretation of dreams links them with the mantic wisdom of the seers of antiquity. All the apocalyptic texts are distinguished from the prophetic by the range of their imagery and the character of the literary genre. Most apocalypses are pseudonymous (Revelation in the New Testament seems to be exceptional in this respect) and contain heavenly revelations mediated in different ways (heavenly ascents as the prelude to the disclosure of divine mysteries, an angelic revealer descending to earth to communicate information to the apocalyptic seer). Because in most of the extant apocalypses there is a particular focus on the destiny of the world, it is often stated that they offer evidence of an expectation of the imminent end of the world, accompanied by the irruption of a new order. This is said by some scholars to contrast with a more material eschatology found in the rabbinic literature in which the future order of things evolves within history. This distinction is to be rejected as all the extant Jewish apocalypses offer an account of a hope for the future of the world which differs little from other non-apocalyptic sources.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Antony Spawforth

Apollonius (12), of Tyana (ἈπολλώνιοςὁΤυανεύς), a Neo-pythagorean holy man (see neopythagoreanism), conceivably the L. Pompeius Apollonius of an inscription from *Ephesus (C. P. Jones in Demoen and Praet 2009). According to the only full account, the novelistic (see novel, greek) biography of Philostratus (see philostrati), he was born at Tyana in *Cappadocia at the beginning of the 1st cent. ad and survived into the reign of *Nerva. He led the life of an ascetic wandering teacher (see asceticism), visited distant lands (including India), advised cities, had life-threatening encounters with Nero and Domitian, whose death he simultaneously prophesied (8. 25–6; cf. Cass. Dio 67. 18), and on his own death underwent heavenly assumption. He was the object of posthumous cult attracting the patronage of the Severan emperors; pagan apologists compared him favourably to Jesus. An epigram from Cilicia (SEG 28.

Article

Wolfram Kinzig

The modern collective term appears to go back to F. Morel (Corpus Apologetarum, 1615) and P. Maran (1742; cf. PG 6). The idea as such, however, is much older, as can be seen from the codex Paris. gr. 451 (written in 914 by the scribe Baanes by order of Arethas, archbishop of *Caesarea (1) in Cappadocia) which contains a collection of apologetic writings. The term designates a number of Christian Greek and Latin authors of the 2nd and early 3rd cents. who defended the Christian faith against attacks from their pagan contemporaries. Apologists in this sense, whose writings are partly or fully preserved, are Quadratus, Aristides, *Justin Martyr, *Tatian, *Melito, *Athenagoras, and *Theophilus (3) of Antioch, who all wrote in Greek, and the Latin authors *Minucius Felix and *Tertullian. Nothing is left of the works of Miltiades and Apollinaris of Hierapolis. They all wrote at a time when the legal position of the new religious groups was unclear and the Christians were under continuous threat from their *pagan environment (see christianity).

Article

Argei  

C. Robert Phillips

On 16 and 17 March in Rome a procession went to the shrine of the puppets (itur ad Argeos: Ov. Fast. 3. 791), i.e. to the 27 shrines (sacraria) of the Argei (Varro, Ling. 5. 45–54) situated at various points in the four Servian regions of Rome. On 14 May the celebrants hurled the puppets from the pons Sublicius into the Tiber (Ov. Fast. 5. 621 ff.; Varro, Ling. 7. 44). This much is clear, but uncertainty surrounds almost all else. The ancients debated the number of sacraria (27 or 30; cf. A. Momigliano, JRS 1963, 99 ff.), the god involved (if any), and commonly explained the rituals as a surrogate for human sacrifice. Wissowa agreed (RE 2. 689 ff.), seeing a symbolic burial of Rome's then (3rd-cent. bce) enemies, Greeks and Gauls (Livy 22. 57); he dubiously supported it by seeing Greek etymologies. Others suggested a vegetation rite, unlikely because of the number of figures: L. Deubner, ARW 1925, 299 ff.

Article

C. Robert Phillips

Roman festival on 19 October to *Mars which purified (see lustration) the army (Varro, Ling. 5. 153, 6. 22); this took place at the *Aventine's Armilustrium (Livy 27. 37. 4, Plut. Rom. 23. 3), which contained an altar (Festus Gloss. Lat. 115), and involved the *Salii.

Article

Artemidorus (3), of *Ephesus but called himself ‘of Daldis’ after his mother's native city in Lydia, whose chief deity *Apollo instigated his work on predictive *dreams. His Onirocritica, the product of travels to collect dreams and their outcomes and of study of the numerous earlier works on the subject, is the only extant ancient dream-book. It is of interest both for its categories of dream interpretation and for its religious and social assumptions. It was influential both in the Arab world, and in Europe from the Renaissance onwards. Artemidorus also wrote Oeonoscopica (but probably not the Chiroscopica ascribed to him).

Article

Artemon (4), of Miletus, wrote, under Nero, a work in 22 books on *dreams and their consequences, with special reference to cures by *Sarapis. He is criticized by *Artemidorus (3), see 1. 2, 2. 44, etc.

Article

Stephen J. Harrison

Ascanius, character in literature and mythology, son of *Aeneas. Not mentioned in Homer, he appears in the Aeneas-legend by the 5th cent. bce, at first as one of several sons of Aeneas (Hellanicus, FGrH 4 F 24, 31). His mother in the cyclic Cypria (see epic cycle § 4 (6)) was Eurydice (Paus. 10. 26. 1); in Virgil and Livy and thereafter she is *Creusa (2), daughter of Priam; Livy also mentions a further version, that he was the son of Lavinia (Livy 1. 3. 2–3). The gens Iulia claimed him as eponymous founder with an alternative name of ‘Iulus’, variously derived (cf. Aen. 1. 267–8 with Servius). In the Aeneid he is a projection of typical and sometimes ideal Roman youth, but still too young to play a major part; other versions tell of his subsequent career as king of *Lavinium and founder of *Alba Longa, the city from which Rome was founded (e.

Article

Koenraad Verboven

Voluntary associations are attested already in early republican times, but they became important especially during the late Republic. Their role in street politics in the 1st century bce led to a general ban and lasting imperial apprehension. Yet by the mid-2nd century ce, important collegia were an essential part of urban public life, participating in processions and ceremonies and having reserved seats in (amphi)theatres. The three central activities of all associations were shared dinners, religious cults, and funerary practices. Religious (and) neighbourhood-based collegia prevailed during the Republic. Professional associations became more important during the Principate as authorities began to use them to facilitate and supervise public works and provisions (particularly for the annona), and for levying taxes. Some collegia received privileges and had extensive funds and property. Professional collegia continued to be important at least until early Byzantine times. Imperial control intensified in late antiquity, but the overall legal framework hardly changed.

Article

David Potter

Christian apologist from Athens and author of two extant works, The Resurrection of the Dead, and the Legatio. The latter is a defence of Christianity composed in the form of a letter to the emperors Marcus *Aurelius and *Commodus. This work is an extremely important, early assertion of Christian propriety against commonplace charges that Christians were atheists and cannibals (see atheism; cannibalism).

Article

Attis  

Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid

Attis, in mythology, the youthful consort of *Cybele and prototype of her eunuch devotees. The myth exists in two main forms, with many variants. According to the Phrygian tale (Paus. 7. 17. 10–12; cf. Arn. Adv. nat. 5. 5–7), the gods castrated the androgynous *Agdistis; from the severed male parts an almond tree sprang and by its fruit Nana conceived Attis. Later Agdistis fell in love with him, and to prevent his marriage to another caused him to castrate himself. Agdistis is clearly a doublet of Cybele, though Arnobius brings them both into his account. Ovid (Fast. 4. 221–44) and others change many details, but keep the essential aetiological feature, the self-castration. In a probably Lydian version Attis, like *Adonis, is killed by a boar. The story of Atys, son of *Croesus, who was killed by the Phrygian Adrastus in a boar-hunt (Hdt. 1. 34–35) is an adaptation of this, and attests its antiquity, though the Phrygian is probably the older version.

Article

augures  

J. Linderski

Augures, official Roman diviners. They formed one of the four great colleges of priests (see collegium), instituted (so the tradition) in the regal period; originally made up of three (patrician) members, the complement was increased to nine in 300 bce when the plebeians were admitted (five plebeians, four patricians), to fifteen by *Sulla, and sixteen by *Caesar. New members were admitted (for life) through co-optation; from 103 bce through popular election by the assembly of seventeen tribes (see tribus) from the candidates nominated by two college members. Etymology disputed: traditionally derived from ‘directing the birds’ (avi + ger (o)), but probably connected with the root aug (eo), denoting increase and prosperity (cf. augustus). We have to distinguish between the functions of the individual augurs and those of the college. As a college they were a body of experts whose duty was to uphold the augural doctrine (variously described as disciplina, ars, scientia) or law (ius augurium or augurale) that governed the observation and application of the auspices (see auspicium) in Roman public life (Cic.

Article

J. Linderski

Augurium canarium, a ceremony so called by Pliny (HN 18. 14, quoting the commentarii pontificum (pontifical records), see libri pontificales), and canarium sacrificium by *Ateius Capito (2), who says that reddish (rutilae) bitches were sacrificed for crops (pro frugibus) to ‘deprecate’ the fierceness of the dog-star (Festus, Gloss. Lat. 386). This dog sacrifice (sacrum canarium, formed on canis, ‘dog’) was performed by public priests (publici sacerdotes, Schol. Dan. G. 4. 424); it took place near the porta Catularia, apparently late in the summer, when the crops were yellowing (flavescentes, Festus (Paulus 147)). On the other hand the day or days (dies) for the sacrifice were to be fixed (Pliny) ‘priusquam frumenta vaginis exeant’ (‘before the corn comes out of the sheath’), hence in the spring. As it was both augury and sacrifice, the *augures probably fixed the day for the ceremony (or in their parlance, inaugurated it), and the pontiffs performed the sacrifice itself. The ceremony appears to have belonged to the category of apotropaic rites to prevent calamities (uti avertantur mala, Serv.

Article

J. Linderski

Augurium salutis, an augural inquiry as to whether it was permissible (for the magistrates) to pray for the safety of the people. This (annual) prayer could be said only on a day free of all wars. It was attempted in 63 bce, and revived by Augustus (Cass. Dio 37. 24–5, 51. 20. 5; Cic. Div.

Article

James Rives

Augustales, members of a religious and social institution common in the cities of the western Roman empire. There are numerous variations on the title, which taken together appear in some 2,500 inscriptions. The two most common are Augustalis and sevir Augustalis. These represent two separate organizations, rarely found in the same town but characterized by the same general features; the simple title of sevir, on the other hand, usually represents a very different institution. The vast majority of Augustales were *freedmen (85–95% of those attested in inscriptions), as well as Trimalchio and his friends, the only Augustales depicted in literature (Petron. Sat. 30, etc. ). They often acted as benefactors (see euergetism), funding public entertainments and building-projects as well as paying entry fees. In return, they enjoyed the prestige of their office, which functioned almost as a magistracy. Augustales were entitled to honorific insignia and were often selected by the town councillors. As their title indicates, their formal responsibilities may have centred on the imperial cult (see ruler-cult), in the context of which they probably organized sacrifices and games.

Article

J. Linderski

Auspicium, literally ‘watching the birds’ (avis, specio), but the term was applied to various types of *divination. Festus (Paulus, Gloss. Lat. 367) records five types of auspical signs: from the sky (ex caelo, mostly thunder and lightning), from birds (ex avibus; observed were the number, position, flight, cries, and feeding of birds), from sacred chickens, the pulli (ex tripudiis; they were kept hungry in a cage; if food dropped from their beaks when they were eating, this was an excellent sign, auspicium sollistimum), from quadrupeds (ex quadrupedibus, e.g. a wolf eating grass), and from unusual, threatening occurrences (ex diris). They were either casually met with (oblativa) or specially watched for (impetrativa). The first two categories could be both oblative and impetrative, the third only impetrative, the fourth and fifth only oblative. Through the auspices the gods did not foretell the future but only expressed their approval or disapproval of an action either contemplated or in progress (the latter only through the oblativa).

Article

John North

Bacchanalia can be used to mean either ‘Bacchic festival’ or ‘Bacchic places of worship’, but usually translates the Greek *mysteries (orgia), with special reference to the worship suppressed by the Roman authorities in 186 bce. We have an account of the suppression in Livy (39. 8–18) and an inscribed version of the senatorial decree (ILLRP 511) against the cult, in the form in which it was circulated to the allied states of Italy. These sources can be supplemented by references in *Plautus' plays and now by archaeological evidence to show that the Bacchic cult, perhaps of south-Italian Greek origin, was widespread in Italy, central and south, decades before the senate chose to act against it. The form of the Italian cult seems to differ from other Hellenistic examples in admitting men as well as women to the mysteries and in increasing the frequency of meetings. It is a matter of debate how far the cult's followers were forming a movement of protest against the Roman authorities.