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Sicilian mime-writer (see mime) of the late 5th cent. bce, son of *Sophron.

Article

Xenarchus (2), a frank and lively Middle Comedy poet (see comedy (greek), middle). Eight titles survive, mainly from daily life. Fr. 1: a parody of tragic style; 4: young men's sexual preference for married women over prostitutes; 7: illegal watering of fish; 14: happy cicadas, whose wives have no voice.

Article

Andrew Brown

Xenocles, son of the elder *Carcinus(1), was a tragic poet who defeated *Euripides in 415 with his Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae, and Athamas (satyric). His Licymnius is parodied by *Aristophanes(1) (Clouds 1264f.), and there are contemptuous references to him at Ar.Thesm.169, 440–2, Frogs86.

Article

Xenophanes of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher, left Ionia (see ionians) at the age of 25, probably after the Persian Conquest in 545 bce, and led a wandering life for 67 years, as he tells us himself in a preserved passage from an elegiac poem (DK 21 B 8). He lived in several cities in Sicily, and is reported to have composed an epic on the colonization of *Elea (see colonization, greek), but the tradition that he was the teacher of *Parmenides is doubtful. He is credited with being the first author of satirical verses (Silloi). The extant fragments, in various metres and genres, include two long elegiac passages on how to conduct a civilized *symposium and on the civic importance of his own work and wisdom (sophiē).A skilful poet in the tradition of *Tyrtaeus and *Solon, Xenophanes carried the Ionian intellectual enlightenment to *Magna Graecia.

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Xenophon, son of Gryllus, from the Athenian *deme of Erchia, was born into a wealthy but politically inactive family around 430 bce. He presumably served in the cavalry (see hippeis (2) and (4)) and certainly (like other affluent young men) associated with *Socrates. This background did not encourage enthusiasm for democracy (see democracy, athenian). He apparently stayed in Athens under the *Thirty Tyrants and fought the democratic insurgents in the civil war (404–403). The political *amnesty of 403/2 theoretically protected him, and material in Hellenica and Memorabilia shows that (like *Plato(1)) he was critical of the Thirty, but insecurity was surely one reason why he accepted the suggestion of a Boeotian friend, Proxenus, to enrol as a *mercenary with *Cyrus(2). He was thus among the 10,000 Greeks involved in Cyrus' rebellion and defeat at *Cunaxa (401).

Article

Greek novelist (see novel, greek), author of The Ephesian story of Anthia and Habrocomes (Τὰ κατὰ Ἀνθίαν καὶ Ἁβροκόμην Ἐφεσιακά). Mention (2. 13. 3) of an eirenarch, an office not attested before *Trajan, together with the early place in the genre's development suggested by Xenophon's unambitious treatment of his story, indicates a date between ce 100 and 150: so far no papyri have been published. The *Suda calls him a historian and alleges other works, specifying only one, On the city of Ephesus, and gives *Ephesus as his origin, though the novel's knowledge of Ephesus has been argued to be second-hand. Xenophon tells, as omniscient narrator, how the young lovers from Ephesus were sent abroad by their parents soon after marriage in response to an oracle, became separated whilst on a voyage, and were conveyed round much of the Mediterranean world (even Italy), surviving all sorts of trials (shipwrecks, attacks by pirates and brigands, enslavement, advances by powerful suitors) and remaining faithful to each other. Reunited at last in *Rhodes they returned to Ephesus, to live happily ever after.

Article

John Francis Lockwood, Robert Browning, and Nigel Wilson

Zenodotus of Ephesus (b. c. 325 bce), pupil of *Philitas, became the first head of the Library at *Alexandria (c. 284) and undertook the classification of the Greek epic and lyric poets, some of whom he edited.(1) Lexicography: Homeric Glossary (Γλῶσσαι), which was in alphabetical order. There was also a collection of words used in Greek dialects. (2) Editions (διορθώσεις). His recension of *Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, in which the poems may have been divided into twenty-four books for the first time, represented the first scientific attempt to get back to the original Homeric text by the collation of several manuscripts. He marked lines of the genuineness of which he felt doubt with a newly-invented sign, the obelus. Some modern critics have accused him of altering the text drastically; more recent research suggests that this picture of an arbitrary and subjective manipulator of the text is unfair. (3) He produced also recensions of .

Article

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Zonas of *Sardis, author of nine *epigrams in the Greek *anthology from the Garland of Philip. If the Diodorus Zonas of Strabo 627–8, then he lived about 80 bce (see Page in GLP 2. 263–4). He writes on humble folk and rural themes, ‘among the most attractive of the imitators of *Leonidas, far superior to their model’ (GLP413).