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Article

Paphos  

Hector Catling

Paphos, city-kingdom of SW *Cyprus. (1) Palaepaphos (mod. Kouklia) built on a bluff near the coast, site of a famous sanctuary of *Aphrodite, by tradition born nearby of sea-foam. Alternative cult-*founders are the pre-Greek *Cinyras, ambivalent friend of Agamemnon, (the Paphos royal house was Cinyrad throughout its history) and *Agapenor of *Tegea, post-Trojan War settler. Archaeology supports both traditions. The first temple (pillar-hall and temenos) is of 12th-cent. bce date; contemporary tombs nearby contain imported and local Mycenaean pottery (see mycenaean civilization). 11th-cent. chamber tombs suggest actual Aegean colonization; so does a grave-gift inscribed in the Cypriot syllabary (see pre-greek languages) with the Greek name Opheltes. Little remains of the early-iron-age and Archaic city, only its cemeteries. At the (excavated) NE gate in the Archaic defences are Persian siege works of 498 bce, rich in debris (sculpture etc. ) from a destroyed extra-mural sanctuary. The Archaic-Hellenistic Aphrodite temples are lost; a sanctuary complex of c.

Article

Stephen Hodkinson

Although animals were ubiquitous throughout the Greek countryside, animal husbandry has until recently received little systematic attention; hence current interpretations are frequently embryonic. Zooarchaeological studies of animal bone assemblages from the historical period are particularly needed.Evidence of domesticated animals goes back to the 7th millennium bce. In the early neolithic modest flocks of ovicaprines (sheep and goats), kept primarily for meat, were integrated into small-scale gardening, grazing on fallow and stubble and supplying manure. More specialized stock-keeping arose in the late neolithic and bronze age, with increased exploitation of ‘secondary products’, especially ox traction and ovicaprine textile fibres, culminating in the large-scale wool production of the Minoan and Mycenaean palaces (see minoan and mycenaean civilization). Older views of the Dark Age as one of nomadic pastoralism (often associated with the ‘Dorian invasions’; see dorians; heraclidae) are now under challenge. ‘Homeric society’ rested upon arable production, with large herds as a store for surplus wealth. The period of independent poleis (discussed further below) witnessed smaller herd sizes; Hellenistic and Roman Greece a subsequent increase.

Article

Jan Stubbe Østergaard

The term “polychromy” has been in use since the early 19th century to denote the presence of any element of colour in Greek and Roman sculpture. The evidence for such polychromy is literary, epigraphical, archaeological, and archeometric; research on the subject therefore requires collaboration between the humanities, conservation science, and natural science. Such research should go hand in hand with the investigation of the polychromy of Greek and Roman architecture, since it is symbiotically related to sculpture, technically as well as visually.

Knowledge of Greek and Roman sculptural polychromy is still very uneven. Scholars have focused on stone sculpture, and most research has been directed towards the Archaic, Early Classical, Hellenistic, and Imperial Roman periods. For terracottas, the Hellenistic period has enjoyed the most research, while investigation of the polychromy of bronze sculpture has only recently begun.

The scientific research methodology applied concerns the materials and techniques employed. The main colouring agents are paints, metals, and coloured marbles. Pigments are based on inorganic and organic materials applied with proteins, wax, or plant gums as binding media. Metals used are bronze, copper, silver, and gold. A range of coloured marbles came into use in the Roman Imperial period, but in all periods, assorted materials such as semi-precious stones and metals were used for inlaid details and attached objects like jewelry and weapons.

Article

Karim Arafat and Catherine A. Morgan

Pottery is a primary source of evidence thoughout the Greek period. Pervasive and almost indestructible, its generally predictable development means that it provides a framework to which other arts can be related. The presence of clay in every region fostered local styles, whence trade patterns can be detected. Factors determining origin are clay, shape, and decoration, the latter varying from none (most cookpots, coarsewares, storage amphoras) to the elaborate mythological scenes exemplified by Archaic and Classical Athenian vases (see imagery). Recent advances in clay analysis have further refined provenance studies (see pottery, scientific analysis of). Regular inscriptions give names of potters and painters and clues to workshop organization (see pottery (greek), inscriptions on) as do excavations like those in the Athenian Agora, the area of *Plato (1)'s *Academy, the Potters' Quarter at Corinth, or Figaretto on *Corcyra. Sir John Beazley (1885–1970) adopted Renaissance attribution methods to reconstruct the careers of many Archaic and Classical Athenian vase-painters, and to gauge master–pupil relations and workshop patterns.

Article

David William John Gill

Petrographical and chemical analysis are the two main ways to characterize pottery. The former treats the pottery as a geological sediment which has been used for a particular purpose. Thus by scanning thin sections of pottery under a polarizing microscope, mineral inclusions can be visually identified; this allows a parallel to be drawn with other ceramic material, which may lead in turn to an identification of the clay source. This technique is particularly useful for coarse wares such as transport *amphorae. However in the case of fine pottery where inclusions have been removed, the clay can be treated as a bulk material. The sample can be studied by three main means: neutron activation analysis, optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition to the three main elements within clay (silicon, aluminium, and oxygen), an analysis will seek to determine the percentage of other elements in the composition: iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and titanium. These proportions can then be plotted and the results compared with other tests from pottery or indeed from clay sources.

Article

rings  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Rings were used in Minoan and Mycenaean times (see minoan and mycenaean civilization) both as signets and as ornaments. They are not mentioned in *Homer and are rarely found in early iron age deposits. From the early 6th cent. bce they were in regular use as signets. The practice of wearing rings as ornaments is rare before the 4th cent. and reaches its height under the Roman Empire. Collections of rings are mentioned at this period. Rings also had special uses at Rome: the gold ring as a military decoration and as a mark of rank, originally limited to nobiles (see nobilitas) and *equites, extended under the empire to denote ingenuitas; and the betrothal ring, first of iron, later of gold (apparently unknown in Greece).

Article

Donald Emrys Strong and Susan E. C. Walker

A sarcophagus is a coffin for inhumation which in ancient times was often richly decorated. In Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece (see minoan and mycenaean civilization) two standard shapes of terracotta coffin—the bath-tub and the chest on four legs with a gable roof—were in use especially from the 14th to the 12th cents. bce, and some, including the famous Haghia Triada sarcophagus, were richly painted. In the late Archaic period sarcophagi of painted clay and rectangular or trapezoidal form were made at or near *Clazomenae in western Asia Minor. Sculptured stone sarcophagi appear first in the 5th cent. bce: the finest anthropoid and casket sarcophagi with sculptured reliefs were made by Greek craftsmen for the kings of *Sidon from the 5th cent. to about 300 bce; anthropoid sarcophagi are also known from other sites on the Mediterranean and Black (*Euxine) Sea coasts. A distinctive type of sarcophagus with ogival roof was made in *Lycia.

Article

Seals are small semiprecious and common stones cut into standard shapes, polished, pierced, and then engraved with ornamental patterns, figures, or, more rarely, inscriptions. When pressed into clay or wax, the seal leaves a legible impression in relief. An important subgroup of seals is metal rings with engraved bezels that can be viewed both on the ring and in relief. A seal’s basic function is as an identity device but it can also be worn as conspicuous jewellery. While the stones themselves were ascribed magical and therapeutic properties, their primary use in ancient societies was to secure property, whether in the home or the public arena, either to assign responsibility or to authenticate or witness documents by leaving the imprint of an individual who is identified by the seal’s impression.

The history of seals in Greece is long but not continuous. Clay seals appeared in the earliest Neolithic, carved with simple linear designs and were probably intended for imprinting cloth or decorating pottery.

Article

Louise Hitchcock

The term “Sea People” is a modern designation for some nine tribes known from Egyptian, Hittite, Ugaritic, and biblical texts. Their origins are uncertain, but they are associated with maritime activity that contributed to the destruction of many city-states in the Mediterranean during the era known as the Late Bronze–Iron Age transition. An outcome of this activity was the collapse or destruction of many Bronze Age sites and an emergence of new cultures.One of the great remaining mysteries in Mediterranean archaeology is understanding the identities of the Sea People and their role in contributing to the end of the Bronze Age (c.1200bce). This era of collapse was followed by a new Age of Iron that saw the emergence of the classical Greeks, biblical Israelites, and Romans. The term Sea People is misleading as it is a modern category first used in the 19th century to refer to a collection of different tribal groups wreaking havoc around the Mediterranean. Their tribal names include Denyen, Ekwesh, Lukka, Peleset, Shekelesh or Tjeker, Shardanu, Teresh, Meshwesh, and Weshesh. The origins of some of these groups are associated with particular places in the minds of many (for example, many of the authors in the bibliography and even myself), whereas the origins of others are completely uncertain or continue to be debated. Their names also have variant spellings, based on their being attested in different languages including, chiefly, Egyptian, but also .

Article

ships  

Philip de Souza

The earliest seagoing vessels in the ancient world were probably very small rafts and boats, made from skins, bundles of reeds, or carved out of tree-trunks. Even in such tiny craft it was possible to make quite lengthy journeys, but the need for greater capacity and security encouraged the development of larger, more stable vessels. The first ships were probably paddled, but oars appear to have been used from the 3rd millennium bce. The oldest representations of ships with sails are from Egypt and date to around 3100 bce. By the end of the 2nd millennium ships equipped with oars and a square sail were found all over the eastern Mediterranean.From the Archaic period onwards the peoples of the eastern Mediterranean developed specialized types of ships which gradually came to be used throughout the ancient world. For war they used long ships, rowed by 50 or more oarsmen, on up to three levels, with masts and sails for long journeys. (The pentecontor or fifty-oared ship was largely superseded from perhaps the 6th cent.

Article

Shelley Wachsmann

During the Bronze Age, ships and seafaring capabilities transformed the Mediterranean and Red Seas from insurmountable barriers to highways over which cultures communicated for a variety of reasons. Watercraft were essential to the development of maritime cultures in the Bronze Age. Our knowledge of these vessels derives primarily from contemporaneous iconography, but also from remains of the actual vessels and from texts. Each culture developed ships and boats that best suited their individual needs based on the availability of materials and local traditions.Ships and boats played a pivotal role in the Bronze Age Mediterranean, both on inland waterways and at sea. Virtually everything made or used by humans travelled in some way by watercraft, which allowed cultures to interact over vast distances through exploration, trade, warfare, piracy, and migration. Acquiring copper and tin was of primary importance, and in the late 2nd millennium bce the shape of some ingots, termed “oxhide ingots,” was particularly suited for ship transportation. Militarily, ships could be used as mobile fighting platforms during battles, but more commonly they served for coastal raiding and as naval transports for men and supplies. It is impossible to understand the Mediterranean Bronze Age world without taking into consideration the influence of .

Article

A. J. Parker

Over 1,000 ancient shipwreck sites are known from the Mediterranean, and many more no doubt remain to be found. The earliest vessel found is, however, an Egyptian river-boat, the ship of Cheops (mid-3rd millennium); this craft would probably not have been able to undertake seagoing voyages. Some elements of its relatively weak construction appear still to be incorporated in the earliest ship to be found in the open sea, the wreck of Ulu Burun (*Lycia, 14th cent. bce); this was a floating treasury of metals, minerals, and exotic products. Archaic wrecks, such as that at Pointe Lequin (late 6th cent. bce), likewise tend to produce rare items, but more mundane, ‘commercial’ cargoes come to dominate the Aegean and then the rest of the Mediterranean from the 4th cent. bce onwards. The greatest frequency of wrecks is in the 1st cent. bce and 1st cent. ce, and reported sites are most dense in the western Mediterranean, especially along the French coast, where they reflect above all the export of Italian *wine to Gaul during the late republic (e.

Article

Sigeum  

Simon Hornblower

Sigeum, important site in the *Troas (NW *Asia Minor), acquired by Athens—the first overseas Athenian possession—in the late 7th cent. bce, after arbitration by *Periander between Athens and *Mytilene (see also alcaeus(1)), but then lost by Athens to Mytilene, until reconquered by *Pisistratus, who made his son Hegesistratus ruler (Hdt. 5. 94 f. with Page; cf. the inscribed vase LSAG2, 366 and below, Phanodicus). *Hippias (1), Pisistratus' son, retired there after his eviction from Athens, and struck a remarkable coin with an Athenian owl and the letters ‘HI (pias)’: Hist. Num2, 377. In the *Delian League Sigeum was notably loyal (IG 13. 17); it usually paid 1000 drachmas from about the mid-5th cent., but six times that (1 talent) in 418/17: ML 75. Aeschylus may refer to Athenian claims on Sigeum (Eum.

Article

stele  

John Boardman and Alan Johnston

Stele, stone slab, in particular one bearing figured decoration or an inscribed text. Grave markers are found occasionally in bronze age Greece, the most notable being those with relief decoration above the Shaft Graves at *Mycenae. In Geometric and early Archaic Greece such stelai are rare, but in Athens about 600 bce there begins a distinguished series with relief decoration on the shaft, topped first by a *sphinx, then by a palmette finial. The latter type originated in east Greece, and it persisted after 500 in the islands, after the Athenian series had already ended. A new type of stele in Athens appears after the mid-5th cent. It is broader, with pilasters at the side and a pediment above, and carries relief representations of the dead or scenes of parting. This ever more monumental series was stopped by a decree of *Demetrius (3) of Phaleron in c.

Article

Tegea  

James Roy

Tegea, a *polis of SE *Arcadia situated in a high upland basin crossed by important routes to *Argos(1), Sparta, and SW and E. Arcadia. The polis was formed from nine local communities, but when an urban centre was created (before the later 5th cent. bce) is unknown. Few traces of the town survive. Outside it there was, however, an important cult of *Athena Alea; its site has yielded finds from Mycenaean times onwards (see mycenaean civilization), and there was a cult centre at least from the 8th cent.; current excavation has found a Geometric temple; and the later Classical temple, burnt down in 395, was magnificently replaced by *Scopas. Around 550 Tegea was compelled by its southern neighbour Sparta to become an ally, and remained so, despite occasional reaction against Sparta, till *Leuctra. Tegea none the less provided asylum for several prominent Spartan exiles. It was also a bitter rival of its northern neighbour *Mantinea.

Article

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Thebes, on the south edge of the eastern plain of *Boeotia, has been one of the major settlements of Greece since the early bronze age, but its prehistoric phases remain relatively poorly known. The oval plateau of the Cadmea (the acropolis or citadel of Thebes) was already extensively occupied in early Helladic II, to which period belong the remains of a ‘corridor house’, an associated fortification wall, and other substantial structures in the centre. An elaborate, originally rich mud-brick and stone tomb on the Ampheion hill to the north may belong to this time, but its date is disputed. Thebes Middle Helladic and early Mycenaean history (see mycenaean civilization) is obscure, although it evidently remained a large settlement. Some relatively well-provided graves belong to the beginning of the Mycenaean period and have interesting links with the shaft graves of *Mycenae. By the mid-14th cent. bce Thebes was one of the great centres of the Mycenaean world. Some have argued that it was the capital of the state Ahhiyawā (see J.

Article

Thera  

R. W. V. Catling

Thera (mod. Santorini, 76 km.2), the southernmost of the *Cyclades. It and Therasia are the remnants of a volcanic island destroyed in a cataclysmic eruption c.1650–1500 bce, burying the prehistoric landscape under volcanic ash. The absolute date of the eruption and its impact on *Minoan civilization are disputed (see atlantis). Viticulture thrives in its arid climate and light soils.At Akroteri a bronze age town, deserted before the final eruption, has been uncovered, providing unique insights into the life of a community c.1600 bce. Buildings survive up to two storeys and preserve a splendid series of frescos depicting scenes of nature, daily life, and cult. Most remarkable is a frieze in miniature style showing ships, towns, and landscapes. Of neolithic origins, Akroteri flourished between c.2000 and 1600 bce, when it had close connections with Crete. Local art combines Minoan influences with a vigorous naturalistic style (see minoan civilization).

Article

Tiryns  

Joseph Maran

The strongly fortified acropolis of Mycenaean Tiryns is situated about 1.5 kilometres from the present coast of the Bay of Nauplion (but only about five hundred metres in the Early Bronze Age and one kilometre in the Late Bronze Age), where it perches on a narrow, rocky outcrop that reaches a height of up to twenty-eight metres above sea level (Fig. 1). The hill slopes from south to north, a topographic feature used during the Mycenaean period to create a division into an upper citadel, a middle citadel, and a lower citadel by demarcating the limits of the different parts of the hill with strong, supporting walls. The acropolis was surrounded by an extensive settlement, the lower town, whose size during the different phases of occupation is still difficult to determine.Because of its impressive appearance, the identification of the site as ancient Tiryns was never disputed, which is why the site very early on attracted the attention of travellers and archaeologists. The remains of the last Mycenaean palace on the upper citadel were largely uncovered in 1884 and 1885 by Heinrich Schliemann and Wilhelm Dörpfeld.

Article

Troy  

Peter Pavúk

Major Bronze Age fortified settlement on the West Anatolian coast, south of the Dardanelles, consisting of a citadel and a lower town, changing in size and importance over time. The site, formerly called formerly Hisarlık, has been intermittently excavated for more than a century now, mainly thanks to Heinrich Schliemann’s identification of the site with Homeric Troy. Whereas the Homeric question has become less central over the years, it is clear by now that Troy, thanks to its localisation in the border-zone between Anatolia, the Aegean, and the Balkans, but also thanks to its uninterrupted occupation from c. 2900 bce to the 6th century ce, is an important archaeological site on its own. Troy became a major reference point, with two main cultural peaks: during Troy II/III (c. 2550–2200 bce) and later on during Troy VI Late/VIIa (c. 1400-1180 bce). It must have profited from a fertile surrounding, the trade in raw materials, or its facilitation, and possibly human resources. Situated on the edge of the Near Eastern civilisations, it was still part of the broader Bronze Age world.

Article

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

The balance (σταθμός, libra, bilanx) of two pans at equal distance from the point of suspension is an invention of the earliest times; in Mycenaean tablets (see mycenaean language) it is the symbol for the largest unit of weight, and Homer is familiar with its use, which persisted through antiquity. The steelyard, in which the rod is unequally divided, the object to be weighed being suspended from the short arm against a sliding counterweight on the longer, does not appear before Roman times (statera: originally statera campana, from an alleged Campanian origin; see campania); but from its greater convenience it became the most popular form of balance. There may be alternative positions for the fulcrum, and two different scales can be marked on the bar. Inscriptions can guarantee the standard. Trutina is a pan-balance for large masses; momentana and moneta are for small objects, or coins. Weighing instruments were only as accurate as the weights used, and it seems that some error was created by using worn items. See weights.