In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, round a distant mark and home again. Similar funeral games for other heroes are recorded; and heroes as well as gods were remembered at the Panhellenic festivals. Malicious ghosts (Taraxippoi, ‘horse-frighteners’) sometimes panicked the horses. But, despite the story of the race by which *Pelops won his bride and kingdom (see hippodamia), equestrian events were not the oldest in the historic Olympia festival (see olympian games). *Pausanias (5. 8. 7–8) records the introduction of four-horse chariots in the 25th Olympiad (680 bce); of ridden horses in the 33rd; and of other equestrian events at irregular intervals thereafter. Regular hippodromes were now used. No material remains survive; but literary evidence (e.g. Soph.
John Kinloch Anderson
Carl W. Blegen and D. F. Easton
Troy lies in north-west *Asia Minor 5 km. from the *Hellespont. The site consists of a mound with c. 25 m. of deposits and a 1 km. sq. skirt to the south. It was noted by F. Kauffer (1793), identified as classical Ilion by E. D. Clarke (1810) and as Homeric Troy by C. Maclaren (1820). Soundings by Frank Calvert (1863, 1865) revealed prehistoric strata. H. Schliemann excavated much of the mound (1870–90), further excavations being by W. Dörpfeld (1893–94), C. W. Blegen (1932–38), M. O. Korfmann (1988–2006) with C. B. Rose, and since 2006 by E. Pernicka.The site was occupied from c. 2900 bce to the 6th cent. ce. The numerous phases are conventionally, but variously, grouped into nine bands. As now defined, I–III (from c. 2900 bce) represent the early bronze age, IV–V (from c.