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Article

Ernst Badian

Antonius ‘Hybrida’, Gaius, son of M. *Antonius (1). An officer under *Sulla in Greece and rewarded in his *proscriptions, he was prosecuted and escaped conviction by appealing to the tribunes. The *lex (2)Antonia de Termessibus was passed in his tribunate. Expelled from the senate by the censors (70), he became praetor (66) with *Cicero's help, but in 64 made an election compact with *Catiline and was assailed by Cicero. As consul 63, he was bribed by his colleague Cicero with the province of Macedonia, agreed to march against Catiline, but left the fighting to M. *Petreius. Oppressive and unsuccessful in Macedonia, he was prosecuted repetundarum (see repetundae), vigorously defended by Cicero, but convicted. Recalled from exile by *Caesar, he became censor 42 under the Triumvirate.

Article

Ernst Badian

Antonius, Lucius, third son of M. *Antonius (Creticus), was quaestor in Asia 50 bce and in charge of the province for part of 49. As tribune 44, he carried a law allowing Caesar to appoint half the magistrates except for consuls; after Caesar's death he allowed Octavian to address a *contio and later was made chairman of a commission to distribute public land (see ager publicus) to *veterans and the poor. For his work on this (later annulled by the senate) he was made patron of the 35 tribes (see tribus) and of the ex-military tribunes; he also (we do not know why) became patron of the *equites and of the bankers (see banks) and was honoured with statues in the Forum (Cic. Phil. 6. 12 ff.). He served as a legate under his brother M. *Antonius (2) (‘Mark Antony’) in the war of *Mutina and, as consul 41, in co-operation with *Fulvia and, at least initially, with Antony's support (as the coins show), worked in Antony's interest against Octavian, trying to impress Antony's partisans by assuming the cognomen ‘Pietas’.

Article

Antonius Primus, Marcus, born c. 20 ce at *Tolosa (Toulouse) in Narbonese Gaul, was according to *Tacitus (1) ‘energetic, eloquent, skilled in stirring up feeling against others, effective in time of civil war and discord, rapacious, generous, a baleful influence in peacetime, but a great asset in war’ (Hist. 2. 86). In ce 61 he was convicted of participating in the forgery of a will, but regaining his senatorial rank as a partisan of Galba, was given command of Legio VII Gemina in Pannonia. In 69 he declared for Vespasian, won over the Danubian armies, and ignoring exponents of a cautious strategy, led the invasion of Italy with dashing bravery, capturing *Aquileia, winning the second battle of *Bedriacum, and capturing Rome on 20 December. He was briefly in complete control, but C. *Licinius Mucianus outmanœuvred him by promising a provincial governorship, and broke his influence. Primus retired quietly to Tolosa and was still alive in 95 (Mart.

Article

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Antonius Saturninus, Lucius, *suffect consul ce ?82, commander of the army of Upper Germany, revolted at *Mogontiacum (probably 1 January ce 89). Hearing the news *Domitian marched north from Rome. Meanwhile, however, the governor of Lower Germany, *Lappius Maximus, who remained loyal, defeated and killed Saturninus in battle by the Rhine (perhaps near Coblenz). The usurper's German allies were said to be unable to cross to his assistance because of a sudden thaw (Suet. Dom. 6 f.; Cass. Dio 67. 11; Mart. 4. 11, 9. 84; CIL 6. 2066 = MW 15 (Arval Acts)). Saturninus was a *novus homo (new man), and the causes of his action are a mystery. It marks a turning-point in the reign of Domitian, preceding other executions.

Article

Antonius, Marcus, praetor pro consule 102 bce, then proconsul, fought against the Cilician pirates (see cilicia; piracy), triumphed late in 100, after participating in the action against L. *Appuleius Saturninus, and became consul 99. A friend of C. *Marius (1), with Arpinate connections, he delayed Q. *Caecilius Metellus Numidicus' return. As censors 97–96, he and L. *Valerius Flaccus (2) admitted Italians as citizens, thus prompting the *lex (2)Licinia Mucia (95). He defended M'. *Aquillius (2) and C. *Norbanus, was prosecuted under the law of Q. *Varius but acquitted, and served as a legate in the *Social War (3). Having turned against Marius, he was killed after Marius' return (87). He and L. *Licinius Crassus were the leading orators of their age, heard by *Cicero, who later drew idealized portraits of them, particularly in Brutus and De oratore.

Article

Antonius (2), Marcus, ‘Mark Antony’, Roman statesman and general. The truth of his career and personality has been heavily overlaid by legend, as first hostile propaganda presented him as a villain, then romantic biography turned him into a figure of tragic self-destruction.2. Eldest son of M. *Antonius (Creticus), he was born in 83 (or, less likely, 86) bce. His youth was allegedly dissipated. He distinguished himself as cavalry commander under A. *Gabinius (2) in Palestine and Egypt (57–4), then joined *Caesar in Gaul, where, apart from an interval in Rome (53–2), he remained till the end of 50; in 51 he was *quaestor. As tribune (see tribuni plebis) in 49 he defended Caesar's interests in the senate, fled to his camp when the ‘last decree’ was passed (see senatus consultum ultimum), took part in the fighting in Italy, and was left in charge of Italy during Caesar's Spanish campaign. In 48 he served in Greece and commanded Caesar's left wing at *Pharsalus.

Article

Ronald Syme

Antonius Pallas, Marcus, freedman of *Antonia (3) and financial secretary (a rationibus) of her son, the emperor Claudius; brother of (?Claudius) *Felix. His wealth, success, and arrogant temper made him deservedly unpopular. Devoted to *Iulia Agrippina and alleged to be her lover, he successfully promoted her candidature in the competition after the execution of Messalina; he also hastened Claudius' adoption of her son. The senate voted him *ornamentapraetoria and a sum of money: he refused the money and received public commemoration for virtue and frugality (Tac. Ann. 12. 53; cf. Plin. Ep. 7. 29. 2; 8. 6. 1, who indignantly quotes the senatorial decree inscribed on the tomb of Pallas on the via Tiburtina). After the accession of Nero, Pallas, like Agrippina, was gradually and firmly thrust aside from power. Compelled to resign his office, he stipulated that no questions should be asked, that his accounts be regarded as balanced. Finally, he was put to death by Nero, because of his wealth, it is said (ce 62).

Article

Appian  

Kai Brodersen

Appian (Ἀππιανός) of Alexandria, Greek historian. Born in Alexandria (1) at the end of the 1st centuryce, died in Rome c. 160ce; the inscription on a particular Roman sarcophagus (IGUR IV 1700) suggests that it may well be his. Appian experienced the Jewish uprising of 116/7ce, became a Roman citizen, moved to Rome as an advocate, and eventually gained, through the influence of his friend M. Cornelius Fronto, the dignitas (“honorary position”) of a procurator under Antoninus Pius, which enabled him to devote his time to writing his Roman History. After the preface and Book 1 on early Rome in the period of the kings, this work is arranged ethnographically, dealing with the individual peoples as Rome conquered them: Book 2 covers the Italians; Book 3, the Samnites; Book 4, the Celts; Book 5, the Sicilians; Book 6, the Iberians; Book 7, Hannibal; Book 8, the Carthaginians (as well as the Libyans and Nomads); Book 9, the Macedonians and Illyrians; Book 10, the Greeks and Ionians; Book 11, the Syrians (Seleucids) and Parthians; and Book 12, Mithridates VI.

Article

Ernst Badian

Appuleius Decianus, Gaius, son of P. *Decius Subulo, apparently adopted by a relative of L. *Appuleius Saturninus, as tribune 99 bce prosecuted P. Furius (tribune 100), incidentally expressing regret at Saturninus' death. For this he was convicted and went into *exile in Asia, where his son became a *negotiator.

Article

Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, of praetorian family and a good popular orator, as quaestor at *Ostia (probably 105 bce) was superseded in his *curaannonae by M. *Aemilius Scaurus (1) and turned against the ruling oligarchy. As tribune 103 he sought the favour of C. *Marius (1) by passing a law assigning land to his African veterans (see iulius caesar strabo, c.). Probably in that year, but possibly in 100, he passed a grain law against violent opposition by *optimate tribunes and a law setting up a permanent *quaestio on *maiestas, directed (if in 103) against unpopular nobiles. He and C. *Servilius Glaucia continued turbulent action in 102 and 101. Q. *Caecilius Metellus Numidicus tried, as censor, to expel them from the senate, but was prevented by his colleague. Tribune again in 100, he again co-operated with Marius by proposing to settle the veterans of his German war in Transalpine Gaul and to give Marius a limited (and probably traditional) right to enfranchise non-Roman colonists. An oath of obedience, to be taken by all magistrates and senators, was attached to the law. Marius found an evasive formula allowing senators to swear it without disgrace, but Metellus refused and went into exile. Marius and Saturninus were later suspected of conspiring to bring this about. With the help of Glaucia, now praetor and supported by the *equites because of his *lex (2)Servilia de repetundis, Saturninus also proposed colonies and land assignments for Roman and Italian veterans of other armies that had fought in Thrace and Sicily and of *proletarii.

Article

Lucius Apronius (suffect consul 8 ce), served as legate on *Germanicus' German campaign (15), receiving triumphal ornaments; similarly honoured as proconsul of Africa (18–21) in the war against *Tacfarinas. While governing Lower Germany, he campaigned unsuccessfully against the *Frisii (28); his son-in-law, C. *Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, simultaneously governed Upper Germany.

Article

Brian Campbell

Marcus Aquilius Regulus, of aristocratic background, recouped his family fortunes after his father's exile by securing under *Nero the conviction of three consulars on capital charges, receiving seven million sesterces and a priesthood. In ce 70 his conduct was unsuccessfully questioned in the senate. Under *Domitian he helped prosecute Q. *Iunius Arulenus Rusticus, whom he described as a ‘Stoic ape’, afterwards publishing his speech and incurring *Pliny (2)'s hostility. Although Pliny recognized that Regulus valued oratory, he quotes with approval the comment that he was ‘the most evil fellow on two legs’. *Herennius Senecio, described him as ‘a bad man, unskilled in speaking’, the reverse of M. *Porcius Cato's definition of an orator (Plin. Ep. 1. 5; 2. 20; 4. 2, 7; 6. 2). Regulus published a biography of his dead son and was a patron of *Martial, who speaks of him in complimentary terms.

Article

Tony Honoré

A lawyer of equestrian family and a leading pupil of Q. *Mucius Scaevola (2), Gaius Aquil Gallus was praetor in 66 bce but thereafter retired to Cercina and devoted himself to legal study. A man whose probity won him popular esteem, he is praised by *Cicero, his colleague as praetor (Off. 3. 14. 60; Nat. d. 3. 30. 74), for introducing the formulae on bad faith (de dolo malo). This refers in particular to the formula (actio de dolo) by which a person who had suffered loss through the bad faith of another could sue the latter. Aquillius held that bad faith existed when pretence was at variance with reality (aliud simulatum, aliud actum), a definition which later proved too wide. He also invented a form (stipulatio Aquiliana), useful in settling accounts, by which one person could give another a complete discharge of all debts due. No writings survive.

Article

Manius Aquillius, Roman consul 129 bce, succeeded M. *Perperna (1) in Asia and completed the war against the allies of *Aristonicus (1). With the help of a senatorial commission he delimited and organized the province, built roads in it (ILLRP 456) and gave it its constitution (Strabo 14. 1. 38 (646 C)). He triumphed (126), was accused repetundarum (see repetundae) and, although guilty, acquitted (App.

Article

Son of (1), chief legate of C. *Marius (1) against the *Cimbri, and his colleague as consul 101 bce. He crushed the slave revolt in Sicily, personally killing the rebel leader. He celebrated an *ovatio (99?), was later (95?) prosecuted repetundarum (see repetundae) and, although guilty (Cic. Flac.

Article

Distinguished Greek general of *Mithradates VI, perhaps from *Sinope or *Amisus. After overrunning Bithynia and most of central Greece (‘First Mithradatic War’, 88–85 bce), he was twice defeated by *Sulla, and commissioned by Mithradates to negotiate a peace. Falling under suspicion of treasonable dealings with Sulla, on the renewal of war (83) he deserted to Rome, and he assisted L.

Article

Great-grandson of *Archelaus (3), last king of *Cappadocia from 36 bce when M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony) installed him. Augustus not only continued him in his kingdom but apparently saved him from a pretender (Val. Max. 9. 15. ext. 2) and in c.25 added Rough Cilicia and in 20 Lesser Armenia. The young *Tiberius, perhaps honouring a family connection, defended Archelaus before *Augustus at a trial (Suet. Tib. 8), but Archelaus was later brusque and ungrateful when Tiberius was living in Rhodes. Tiberius lured him to Rome in ce 17 and had him tried before the senate. Archelaus died when in Rome and his kingdom was turned into a procuratorial province (Tac. Ann. 2. 42; Cass. Dio 57. 17). Archelaus is an interesting figure who, in a good royal Hellenistic tradition of authorship, wrote an account of the territories covered by *Alexander (3) the Great: FGrH 123.

Article

Aretas  

J. F. Healey

Aretas, the name of several kings of the *Nabataeans (Nabataean Aramaic form ḥrtt).

reigned in the early 2nd cent. bce (c.168).

(c.120–96 bce, possibly = the Arab king Herotimus in Justin’s Epitome of Pompeius Trogus) tried to help *Gaza (an important conduit for Nabataean trade) against the attack of Alexander Jannaeus (see hasmoneans), who was defeated by his successor, Obodas I (c.96–85) probably c.93.

‘Philhellen’ (c.84-60/59 bce) also defeated Jannaeus and for some fifteen years occupied *Damascus. He gave refuge to Hyrcanus II in 67 (see hasmoneans) and in 66 besieged Jerusalem, until he was compelled to leave by M. *Aemilius Scaurus (2), who in 62 advanced to Petra but in return for 300 talents of silver recognized Aretas as king of the Nabataeans.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Ariovistus, king of the *Suebi, invaded Gaul c.71 bce at the invitation of the Sequani, defeated the *Aedui, and withstood a combined Gallic attempt to eject him. The senate ratified his conquests by the title of ‘friend’. In 58, however, Caesar, exploiting the hostility of Gallic chiefs (see gallic wars), picked a quarrel with him, and finally routed him in the plain of Alsace.

Article

Traditionally, King Servius *Tullius (c.580–530 bce), made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so that the weapons they could afford determined their military role, with the richest serving as cavalry. Below these groups were the capite censi (‘assessed by a head-count’),—men with no property, who were excluded from the army. Military service, therefore, although integral to the duties of citizenship, was also a privilege. This organization of the citizens probably emerged gradually and not through the act of an individual, but there is little clear evidence for the early army until *Polybius (1) in the 2nd cent. bce. By c.400 bce a small allowance had been introduced for each soldier to help pay his expenses on active service. The body of infantry was called the legio (‘levying’, *legion) and by 311 had been divided into four legions; these were supported by contingents of Rome's Italian allies (*socii) and subjects, grouped in formations comparable in size to the legions and commanded by Roman officers.