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Article

R. A. Kaster

Ap(h)thonius, Aelius Festus, name under which is transmitted a metrical treatise in four books: composed (probably) in the first half of the 4th cent. ce, the work was merged with the Ars grammatica of Marius Victorinus by the mid-5th cent. (Keil, Gramm. Lat. 31–173). The name ‘A (h)thonius’ may be a corruption of ‘*Asmonius’.

Article

Apicius  

Nicholas Purcell

Apicius, proverbial cognomen of several Roman connoisseurs of luxury, especially in food, in particular M. Gavius Apicius (PIR2 G 91), notorious resident of the resort of *Minturnae in the Tiberian period, i.e. early 1st cent. ce (he wrote on sauces and claimed to have created a scientia popinae (‘eating-house cuisine’): Sen.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Antony Spawforth

Apollonius (12), of Tyana (ἈπολλώνιοςὁΤυανεύς), a Neo-pythagorean holy man (see neopythagoreanism), conceivably the L. Pompeius Apollonius of an inscription from *Ephesus (C. P. Jones in Demoen and Praet 2009). According to the only full account, the novelistic (see novel, greek) biography of Philostratus (see philostrati), he was born at Tyana in *Cappadocia at the beginning of the 1st cent. ad and survived into the reign of *Nerva. He led the life of an ascetic wandering teacher (see asceticism), visited distant lands (including India), advised cities, had life-threatening encounters with Nero and Domitian, whose death he simultaneously prophesied (8. 25–6; cf. Cass. Dio 67. 18), and on his own death underwent heavenly assumption. He was the object of posthumous cult attracting the patronage of the Severan emperors; pagan apologists compared him favourably to Jesus. An epigram from Cilicia (SEG 28.

Article

Apollonius (14), of Tyre, hero of an anonymous *novel, extant as the Latin Historia Apollonii Regis Tyrii (5th or 6th cent. ad); modern editors agree that it is preserved in three main and slightly divergent recensions. Scholars differ on whether or not it is a direct translation of a Greek original and on whether or not it is an epitome, both possible inferences from its linguistic Graecisms and disjointed narrative. The work must ultimately derive from a Greek model; it relates closely to the literary tradition of the Greek novel, from which it draws much of its romantic plot of the colourful adventures of a couple and their daughter, and some of its casual details suggest an original historical context for the story in the Greek world of the 2nd or 3rd cent. ad. It was very influential in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, notably on Shakespeare's Pericles.

Article

Alessandro Schiesaro

Appendix Vergiliana, a collection of Latin poems of varied provenance and genre traditionally ascribed to *Virgil. According to *Donatus (2) (whose source is *Suetonius) Virgil wrote in his youth Catalepton, Priapea, Epigrammata, Dirae, *Ciris, Culex, and *Aetna. Servius adds the Copa. The 9th-cent. library catalogue of Murbach mentions a Virgilian MS containing also the Moretum and the post-Virgilian *Elegiae in Maecenatem. The Epigrammata are included in the Catalepton. Later MSS include in the Appendix three other short poems: De institutione viri boni, De est et non, De rosis nascentibus.(1) The Catalepton (κατά λεπτόν, (?) ‘Trifles’) contains fifteen epigrams differing in metre and content. Few believe in Virgilian authorship for the whole collection. Four poems dedicated to Virgil's friends may be authentic: 1 (to *Plotius Tucca, later Virgil's editor), 7 (an erotic piece dedicated to *Varius Rufus, the second editor), and 4 and 11, both dedicated to Octavius Musa, a historian (cf. Hor. Sat.

Article

Apuleius was born of prosperous parents (Apol. 23) at *Madaurus in Africa Proconsularis, and educated in Carthage, Athens, and Rome ( Flor. 18, 20, 16); at Athens he gained enough philosophy to be called philosophus Platonicus by himself and others. He claims to have travelled extensively as a young man ( Apol. 23), and was on his way to *Alexandria (1) when he arrived at *Oea, probably in the winter of 156ce. The story from that point is told by Apuleius himself in his Apologia , no doubt in the most favourable version possible; at Oea he met a former pupil from Athens, Pontianus, who persuaded him to stay there for a year and eventually to marry his mother, Pudentilla, in order to protect her fortune for the family. Subsequently, Apuleius was accused by various other relations of Pudentilla of having induced her to marry him through magic means; the case was heard at *Sabratha, near Oea, in late 158 or early 159.

Article

James Frederick Mountford and M. Winterbottom

Aquila Romanus, perhaps of 3rd cent. ce, whose treatise On Figures of Thought and Speech survives. Its main source is a Greek work by Alexander Numenius (preserved in epitome), but it contains illustrations from Cicero, often misquoted from memory.

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

Aquillius or Aquilius, supposed Latin author of Boeotia, a fabula*palliata which Varro attributed to Plautus.

Article

Aratea  

Edward Courtney

Latin poems translated from *Aratus (1) (his work was sometimes divided into Phaenomena and Diosemeiai) by the following.

(1)P. *Terentius Varro Atacinus.

(2)M. *Tullius Cicero (1) (see section on his poems): 480 continuous lines and about 70 in quotations are extant from the Phaenomena, 27 are quoted as from Prognostica = Diosemeiai. Cicero wrote this work as a young man; he commits factual errors, but his concern was less scientific accuracy than meeting the challenge of conveying Aratus in Latin (he avoids Greek nomenclature wherever he can). The style is stiff and the versification rigid.

(3)*Iulius Caesar Germanicus: the complete Phaenomena in 725 lines. He made better use than Cicero of commentators on Aratus and corrected a number of errors. There are also over 200 lines not based on Aratus about sidereal influences on weather; Germanicus may have intended these as part of a separate work.

Article

M. Winterbottom

Augustan teacher of rhetoric, perhaps from Asia Minor. The elder *Seneca, who thought him one of the four best declaimers of his day (see declamation), was critical of his uneven style (Controv. 2 pref. 1). Among his pupils were Ovid and the philosopher *Papirius Fabianus.

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

An account of the background to the plot of a play, in *Plautus' plays (as in *Menander (1)'s) addressed direct to the audience by the speaker of the prologue, and frequently also indicating the outcome of the plot. Sometimes a brief statement, sometimes a fuller account, it is an element in all Plautus' prologues except those to Asinaria, Trinummus, and (apparently) Vidularia (and not all his plays have prologues). *Terence never includes an argumentum in his prologues.

(2) A plot-summary prefixed in the manuscripts to the plays of Plautus, like the hypotheses to Greek plays (see hypothesis, literary) and *Sulpicius Apollinaris' periochae of Terence's plays. *Acrostic and non-acrostic argumenta are found, written in verse (iambic senarii) in the imperial era.

Article

Peter G. M. Brown

Friend of *Horace and addressee of Ode 1. 22 and Epist. 1. 10; also mentioned in Sat. 1. 9. 60 ff. and 1. 10. 83. Said by *Pomponius Porphyrio to have been an eminent *grammaticus and an author of comedies, he may have had Stoic leanings, see stoicism (S.

Article

Tim Cornell

Ar(r)uns, the Latinized form of a common Etruscan praenomen, widely attested in Etruscan inscriptions in the form arnθ. A legendary Arruns appears in the Aeneid (11. 759 f.) among the Etruscan allies of *Aeneas, and several Etruscans of this name figure in historical accounts of early Rome (e.g. Livy 2. 14. 5, 5. 33. 3; see etruscans).

Article

R. A. Kaster

Arruntius Celsus, grammatical authority of uncertain date (before mid-3rd cent. ce) cited by *Iulius Romanus (in Charisius), *Diomedes (3), *Consentius, *Priscian, and (perhaps) the scholiasts (see scholia) to Virgil's Georgics.

Article

Mario Citroni

Lucius Arruntius Stella, *suffect consul 101 or 102 ce(CIL 6. 1492; Mart. 12.2. 10). Born in Padua (*Patavium), he became quindecimvir sacris faciundis and was in charge (as aedile?) of the celebrations for *Domitian's Dacian triumph in 89 (Stat. Silv. 1. 2. 176 ff.) and (as praetor?) of those for the return of Domitian from the Sarmatian campaign in 93 (Mart. 8. 78). Rich and cultured, he was a chief figure in non-imperial literary *patronage in the Flavian period. He was a friend and patron both of *Martial, who mentions him in eighteen epigrams (from ce 85–6 to 102) and of *Statius, who dedicates to him the first book of the Silvae and a long epithalamium for his marriage to the rich Neapolitan widow Violentilla (Silv. 1. 2). He wrote love elegies and poems in imitation of *Catullus, celebrating Violentilla under the name of Asteris and Ianthis.

Article

ars  

M. Winterbottom

Ars, Gk. technē, ‘art’, came to have the concrete sense ‘treatise’. Handbooks whose titles incorporated this word were often concerned with grammar or rhetoric. *Ovid's Ars amatoria playfully extended the genre. *Horace's Ars poetica is first so named by *Quintilian (8. 3. 60).

Article

R. A. Kaster

Arusianus Messius, rhetorician, compiled an alphabetical list of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and prepositions that admit more than one construction (Exempla elocutionum: ed. Keil, Gramm. Lat. 7. 449–514, superseded by A. della Casa (1977)). Beyond two citations of the orator *Symmachus (2), the compilation is based exclusively on the four main school authors, *Virgil, *Terence, *Cicero, and *Sallust.

Article

Stephen J. Harrison

Ascanius, character in literature and mythology, son of *Aeneas. Not mentioned in Homer, he appears in the Aeneas-legend by the 5th cent. bce, at first as one of several sons of Aeneas (Hellanicus, FGrH 4 F 24, 31). His mother in the cyclic Cypria (see epic cycle § 4 (6)) was Eurydice (Paus. 10. 26. 1); in Virgil and Livy and thereafter she is *Creusa (2), daughter of Priam; Livy also mentions a further version, that he was the son of Lavinia (Livy 1. 3. 2–3). The gens Iulia claimed him as eponymous founder with an alternative name of ‘Iulus’, variously derived (cf. Aen. 1. 267–8 with Servius). In the Aeneid he is a projection of typical and sometimes ideal Roman youth, but still too young to play a major part; other versions tell of his subsequent career as king of *Lavinium and founder of *Alba Longa, the city from which Rome was founded (e.

Article

Peter Kenneth Marshall

Quintus Asconius Pedianus 3–88 ce: probable meaning of Jer. Chron. on 76, his death coming 12 years after the onset of blindness; the earliest reference to his activities may be Servius' remark (on Ecl. 4. 11) that C. *Asinius Gallus (d. ce 33) told Asconius that *Virgil's fourth Eclogue was written in his honour); from Padua (*Patavium) (Livius noster p. 77. 4 Clark; also Quint. 1. 7. 24). It is not known whether he had a public career, although he was certainly familiar with senatorial practice (e.g. 43. 27). His intimate knowledge of the city of Rome indicates that he spent many years there and possibly also composed his written work there. The only surviving work is part of a commentary (written ce 54–7) on *Cicero's speeches, preserved in the order Pis., Scaur., Mil., Corn., Tog. cand., and apparently much abbreviated. It is not known precisely how many speeches received such attention, but it was certainly a considerable number. This commentary was written for his two sons, in preparation for public life. The sources used include Cicero himself (some speeches now lost) and the invaluable *acta for speeches after 59 bce.

Article

Howard Hayes Scullard and Antony Spawforth

Asinius Quadratus, Gaius, author of the Thousand Years (Χιλιετηρίς), a fifteen-book history of Rome from the beginnings to Severus Alexander with a Greek slant (it was written in Ionic Greek and equated Rome's foundation with the first Olympiad in 776 bce), and a Parthian history in at least nine books. Probably the same as C. Asinius Protimus Quadratus (PIR2 A 1244; P.