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Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Goddess, not of youth or youthful beauty in general, but of the iuvenes, the novi togati, or men of military age (contrast Hebe). She controlled the admission of males into the community and protected them as *iuvenes. She had a shrine in the vestibule of Minerva's cella in the Capitoline temple (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3. 69. 5), and is said to have been there before the temple was built, she and *Terminus refusing to leave (ibid. and Livy 5. 54. 7; but see Latte, RR256). When any young man took the toga virilis, it seems that a contribution was made to her temple chest (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4. 15. 5). A sacrifice to *Spes and Iuventas commemorated the day of Octavian's assumption of the toga virilis (Feriale Cumanum on 18 October).

Article

Janus  

Nicholas Purcell

God of door and gate (ianua) at Rome (the term also for the type of honorific gateway that we misleadingly call ‘*triumphal arch’). Like a door, he looked both ways, and is therefore depicted as a double-headed and bearded man (the image chosen for many early Roman coins). More generally he controlled beginnings, most notably as the eponym of the month January (he was named first in prayer, e.g. Livy 8. 9. 6, the *devotio of P. *Decius Mus (1)), and was linked with the symbolism of the gate at the beginning and end of military campaigns (the bad omen of the departure of the Fabii (see gens) from Rome before their destruction at the battle of the *Cremera involved going through the right-hand ianus or arch of the city-gate instead of the left, Livy 2. 49. 8). This was most famously expressed in the ritual of the closing of the temple of Janus Geminus in the Forum in times of complete peace: under Numa, in 235 bce, three times under *Augustus, and more frequently in the imperial period.

Article

Julian ‘the Apostate’ (Iulianus, Flavius Claudius), emperor 361–3 ce, was born at *Constantinople in 331, the son of a half-brother of *Constantine I, Julius Constantius. After his father's murder in dynastic intrigues of 337, Julian was placed by *Constantius II in the care of an Arian bishop (see arianism) and from 342 was confined for six years on an imperial estate in Cappadocia. He impressed his Christian tutors there as a gifted and pious pupil (see christianity), but his reading of the Greek classics was inclining him in private to other gods. In 351, as a student of philosophy, he encountered pagan Neoplatonists (see neoplatonism) and was initiated as a theurgist by *Maximus (3) of Ephesus. For the next ten years Julian's *pagan ‘conversion’ remained a prudently kept secret. He continued his studies in Asia and later at Athens until summoned to Milan by Constantius to be married to the emperor's sister Helena and proclaimed Caesar with charge over Gaul and Britain (6 November 355).

Article

Juno  

James Rives

An old and important Italian goddess and one of the chief deities of Rome. Her name derives from the same root as iuventas (youth), but her original nature remains obscure. Wissowa's argument (see bibliog. below) that she developed from the iuno attributed to individual women is probably mistaken, since that concept apparently arose during the republic on the analogy of the *genius. On the other hand, her roles as a goddess of women and as a civic deity were both ancient and widespread, and it is difficult to give priority to either. Juno was widely worshipped under a number of epithets throughout central Italy. Some of her important civic cults in Rome were in fact imported from this region. Thus in the 5th cent. bce Juno Regina was brought from the *Etruscan town of *Veii and received a temple on the *Aventine. Also apparently Etruscan in origin was the Capitoline Triad of *Jupiter, Juno, and *Minerva; the Capitoline Juno was by the late republic also identified as Regina (‘Queen’), and regularly carried that epithet in the imperial period.

Article

Jupiter  

John Scheid

Jupiter (Iuppiter), sovereign god of the Romans, bears a name referring to the ‘luminous sky’ (†Dyew-pater), the first member of which is etymologically identical with that of *Zeus. He was known to all Italic peoples.Even if associated with the sky, storms, and lightning, Jupiter was not just a god of natural phenomena. These expressed and articulated, in fact, his function as sovereign divinity. Jupiter was sovereign by virtue of his supreme rank and by the patronage derived from exercise of the supreme power. His supreme rank was signified by the fact that the god or his priest was always mentioned at the head of lists of gods or priests, and that the climactic point of the month, before the waning of the moon, was sacred to him in particular (Macrob.Sat. 1. 15. 14). In addition, the Roman symbol of power, the sceptre (sceptrum), belonged to him and functioned as his symbol (FestusGloss.

Article

Richard Gordon

Jupiter Dolichenus (Iupiter Optimus Maximus Dolichenus), high god of Doliche in *Commagene, now Dülük, near Gaziantep, eastern Turkey. The original temple on top of Dülük Baba Tepe has not been excavated, but the god's stance on a bull, holding lightning-bolt and double-axe, indicate clearly his ancestry in the *Hittite storm-god Teshub. All three connote the transcendent but ambivalent power of natural forces. At Rome, he is invoked as conservator totius poli, ‘he who maintains the whole firmament’. There are no literary texts. No monument from the *Persian occupation or the Hellenistic period (see hellenism) is known: the cult first spread in the 2nd cent. ce, well after Rome's absorption of Doliche into Syria (?31 bce or ce 17). Two votive triangles for processions found at Dülük confirm that such cult objects, like most other aspects of the cult in the west, derive directly from Doliche. But the modest western sanctuaries show no common pattern. The counterpart of Iupiter Optimus Maximus Dolichenus is usually named *Juno Sancta/Regina.

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and Karim Arafat

Laocoön, a Trojan prince, brother of *Anchises and priest of *Apollo Thymbraeus or *Poseidon. Of his story as told by *Arctinus (Iliu Persis; see epic cycle), *Bacchylides, and *Sophocles (Laocoön), we know little. In the standard version (Verg. Aen. 2. 40–56, 199–231; Apollod. Epit. 5. 17–18), he protested against drawing the Wooden Horse (see epeius(2)) within the walls of *Troy, and two great serpents coming over the sea from the island of *Tenedos killed him and his two sons (so *Euphorion (2); in Arctinus, Laocoön and one son; in Bacchylides, Sophocles, *Apollodorus (6), and *Quintus Smyrnaeus (12. 444–97), only the sons). According to Hyginus (Fab. 135. 1) the serpents were sent by Apollo to punish him for having married in spite of his priesthood, in Quintus Smyrnaeus and *Virgil, by *Athena on account of his hostility to the Horse.

Article

C. Robert Phillips

Larentalia, Roman festival on 23 December of funeral rites (*Parentalia: fasti Praenestini) at the supposed *Velabrum tomb of the goddess *Acca Larentia (Varro, Ling. 6. 23–4; Macrob. Sat. 1. 10. 11 ff.), celebrated by the pontifices (Cic. Brut. 1. 15. 8). Acca, connected with Greek and Sanskrit roots for ‘mother’, may be the *Lares' mother (Ogilvie on Livy 1.

Article

Lares  

C. Robert Phillips

There are two principal theories of origins; it is impossible to prefer one.(1) E. Samter, Familienfeste der Griechen und Römer (1901), considers them ghosts. He starts from the Lar familiaris, connecting him with the cult of the dead on two grounds: (a) if a bit of food falls on the floor during a meal, it is proper to burn it before the Lares (Plin. HN 28. 27). Since ghosts notoriously haunt the floor, the food, therefore, has gone to the ghosts' region and is formally given to them.(b) At the Compitalia it was customary to hang up a male or female puppet for each free member of a household, a ball for each slave (Festus 272 Lindsay; cf. 108, 273), that the Lares might spare the living and take these surrogates. This seems a precaution against ghosts and accords with the crossroads as favourite places for ghosts; cf. Frazer on Ov. Fast.

Article

Larunda  

C. Robert Phillips

Larunda, obscure Roman goddess, perhaps Sabine (Varro, Ling. 5. 74) and *chthonian (Wissowa, RK234). She was honoured on 23 December on the *Velabrum. The long quantity of the first syllable (Auson. Technop. 8. 9 Peiper = p. 179 Green) suggests a connection with *Acca Larentia and not Lar (short a), but cf.

Article

Latinus  

Stephen J. Harrison

Latinus, eponymous hero of the *Latini. *Hesiod (Theog. 1011–16) makes him son of *Circe and *Odysseus and king of the Tyrrhenians (i.e. *Etruscans, see West's comm.); he is later said to be the son of *Faunus (Verg. Aen. 7. 47–9) or even *Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 43. 1). *Callias (5) in the 4th cent. bce (FGrH 564 F 5) reports that he married Rhome, a Trojan companion of *Aeneas, and was the father of *Romulus; other early versions have him either giving his daughter to Aeneas in marriage or dying in battle against him (cf. Cato, Orig. frs. 9 and 11 Peter (inconsistent); Livy 1. 1. 5–11). *Virgil's Aeneid shows Latinus as honourable but aged and powerless, dominated by his queen Amata and by *Turnus (1), who declare war on Aeneas although Latinus has already given him his daughter Lavinia in marriage (Aen.

Article

J. Linderski

Lectisternium, a Roman version of Greek klinē and *theoxenia, a banquet for gods whose images were placed on a cushioned couch or couches (lectus, *pulvinar). The ceremony (supervised by priests but also involving public participation) was meant to propitiate gods and repel pestilence or enemy. It was first celebrated in 399 bce at the behest of the Sibylline books (see sibyl) for *Apollo, Latona, *Hercules, *Diana, *Mercury, and *Neptune (Livy 5. 13. 4–8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12. 9), later for *Iuventas, *Juno, *Saturnus, Magna Mater (see cybele), and (in 217) the twelve great gods. In private cult lectisternia are attested in connection with birth rites (Varro in Serv. on Aen. 10. 76).

Article

Lemuria  

C. Robert Phillips

Lemuria, Roman private *ritual on 9, 11, and 13 May to propitiate apparently anonymous, dangerous, and hungry ghosts (lemures), then prowling about houses: Ov. Fast. 5. 419 ff. The ritual's midnight time and tossing of black beans have been taken as ‘magical’ (Frazer on 5. 421) but this view relies on false anthropological assumptions. Sometimes distinguished from the ancestral spirits of the *Parentalia (13–23 February) on the basis of malignancy versus benevolence, but Ov.

Article

John North

Liber Pater, Italian god of fertility and especially of *wine, later commonly identified with *Dionysus. There has been much discussion of his origins and possible relation to *Jupiter Liber, but there is no doubt that he was an independent god in Rome by the time (5th cent. bce ?) at which the archaic festival calendar (in capital letters in the *fasti) became fixed, for his festival (the Liberalia, 17 March) appears there. He never had a major temple of his own in Rome, but formed part of the *Aventine Triad, *Ceres, Liber, and Libera, whose joint temple was founded in 493 bce, possibly under south Italian influence, and became a great centre for the plebeians (see plebs) in the 5th and 4th cents. bce. Liber and Libera (like other early Roman deities) seem originally to have formed a pair; they were concerned with seeds and therefore with the promotion of fertility both agricultural and human. At Liber's festival, a *phallus was paraded through the fields and into town, accompanied by the singing of crude rustic songs, according to *Augustine, De Civ.

Article

Nicholas Purcell

Libertas, ‘freedom’, personified deity at Rome, linked with *Jupiter in the cult of Jupiter Libertas and the *censors' headquarters, the Atrium Libertatis; worshipped alone on the *Aventine in a temple built by Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (Livy 24. 16. 9, 238 bce). Her ideological connection with the freedoms of the ordinary citizen is apparent: freedom opposed both to the state of *slavery and to dominatio by the powerful. The term was often used in the late republic and early empire to designate the liberty of the politician to develop his career without interference, and so came to focus various types of resistance to the more autocratic aspects of the early Principate. But *Augustus had made a point of restoring the temples of both Libertas and Jupiter Libertas, and the slogan libertas Augusta (Mattingly–Sydenham, RIC, Claudius 97) was the final response. See freedom in the ancient world.

Article

John Scheid

Libitina, Roman goddess of burials, which were registered at her grove on the *Esquiline; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4. 15. 5, cf. Plut. Quaest. Rom. 23. Both identify her with *Venus, a mere confusion with Lubentina (see also Varro, Ling. 6. 47 and cited in Non. 64. 15 f. Mueller).

Article

Herbert Jennings Rose and John North

Libri pontificales, general name for the records kept by the college of *pontifices at Rome. An idea of part of their contents may be formed from the surviving, inscribed, *commentarii of the *arval brethren and the acta of the *Secular Games; but these are records of rituals performed at particular dates, whereas the pontifical records will have contained in addition rules of procedure and directions for the performing of rituals, including the texts of prayers, vows, and other formulae. So much is clear from the quotations and references preserved in the antiquarian tradition; but hardly any verbatim quotations can be trusted, so that the method of organizing the records and even the question whether there was any organization, remain highly arguable. See books, sacred and cultic.

Article

lituus  

J. Linderski

Lituus, curved staff (without a knot, Livy 1. 18. 7) of the *augures which they used to delineate their field of vision (*templum; Cic. Div. 1. 30 and Ov. Fast. 6. 375, with Pease's and Bömer's notes; Serv. on Aen. 7. 187). It also appears in Umbria and Etruria, and earlier in Asia Minor. Frequently represented on republican coins.

Article

Lucaria  

C. Robert Phillips

Lucaria, Roman *festival on 19 and 21 July celebrated in a grove (lucus) between the *via Salaria and the *Tiber where (Festus Gloss. Lat. 245) the Romans had hidden when fleeing the Gauls. The 18 July, Alliensis dies, occasioned this aetiology. *Plutarch (Quaest. Rom.

Article

ludi  

Albert William van Buren, William Beare, and Simon Price

Ludi (including ludi scaenici) (games). The chief uses of this word relate to diverse fields of Roman culture.(1) Religious *festivals came to include formalized competitions and displays, which were as much a component of the ritual programme as were sacrifices and processions. The numbers of days devoted to ludi in Rome increased over time: 57 in the late republic; 77 in the early 1st cent. ce; 177 in the mid-4th cent. ce. There were three types of ludi. First, ludi circenses, which consisted of chariot-racing, held in the circus in the *Campus Martius and eventually in the Circus Maximus (which could seat 150,000 people), see circus. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7. 70–3 is the fullest account of the prior procession. Secondly, ludi scaenici, originating in 364 bce as *pantomime dances to flute, later including plays, first at the Ludi Romani of 240 bce (see livius andronicus, l.