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Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Highway built by *Domitian (95 ce), running from Sinuessa on the *via Appia through Volturnum, *Liternum, and *Cumae to *Puteoli, where it joined a road to *Neapolis.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Via Egnatia, Roman road built c.130 bce from the *Adriatic coast to *Byzantium; named after the proconsul in Macedonia Cn. *Egnatius (AE1973, 492), the via Egnatia was the main route from Rome to the east. Two branches of the road, starting respectively from *Dyrrhachium and *Apollonia, united in the Skumbi valley, crossed the Balkan range by Lake Lychnidus (now Ochrida), and descended to *Thessalonica by way of Heraclea, Eordaea, *Aegae, and *Pella, whence it followed the Thracian coast to Byzantium. It followed the line of a trade-route through the Balkan range which Corinth had exploited.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Flaminia, the great northern highway of Italy, built 220 bce by C. *Flaminius (1), when censor (Livy, Epit.20; reject Strabo 5. 217). It was 334 km. (209 mi.) long from Rome by way of *Narnia, Mevania, *Nuceria(2), and Helvillum to *Fanum Fortunae, where it turned north-west and followed the Adriatic coastline via Pisaurum to *Ariminum. After ce 69 the section between Narnia and Nuceria was provided with an alternative, 9-km. (5½-mi.) longer route through *Interamna Nahars, *Spoletium, and Fulginium. From its earliest days the Flaminia was much frequented; its importance was, if anything, enhanced in late imperial times when the imperial court was at Milan (*Mediolanum) or *Ravenna. Large towns grew up along its tomb-lined course. The road was often repaired: by C. *Sempronius Gracchus, *Augustus (parts of whose bridge at Narnia and whose honorific arch at Ariminum survive), Vespasian (whose tunnel through the Intercisa Pass still exists near Calles), *Trajan, *Hadrian.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Labicana, highway running south-east from Rome to Labici and the country of the *Hernici. Avoiding the Alban hills (see albanus mons), it joined the *via Latina near *Anagnia.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Latina had both an ‘old’ and a ‘new’ route, as curators' inscriptions make clear (ILS1159, 1174, 8980). The older ran south-west from Rome, through the country of the Latins (see latini) and down the Sacco and *Liris valleys into *Campania; it may have been established during Etruscan expansion in the 6th cent. bce. The later road followed the Trerus valley through the Hernici country where the via Labicana joined it near *Anagnia. It crossed the Liris at *Fregellae, then proceeded via Aquinium, *Casinum, *Venafrum, *Teanum Sidicinum, and *Cales across the *Volturnus to *Casilinum, where it merged with the Appia (see via appia). It may have been built by the consul L. Cornelius Cinna in 127 bce (ILLRP457). The Latina was much frequented (Strabo 5. 237), and was used by both *Pyrrhus and *Hannibal, presumably because it followed an easier line than the via Appia.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Popillia, highway in northern Italy, linking *Ariminum, *Atria, and *Altinum with *Aquileia, built by P. *Popillius Laenas, consul 132 bce (H. Dessau, ILS 5807). The road from *Capua to *Rhegium in southern Italy is also often attributed to him, but incorrectly: see via annia (2).

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Postumia, north Italian highway centring on *Cremona, whence it ran in one direction through Placentia and Dertona to *Genua, and in the other through *Bedriacum, *Verona, Vicetia, and Opitergium to *Aquileia. Built by Sp. *Postumius Albinus (consul 148 bce), it consolidated the conquest of the Transpadane region (see transpadana).

Article

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road popularly known as via Sacra lay between the *Regia and the house of the rex sacrorum, which was at a location known as Summa Sacra Via; as properly defined, however, the road led from the Sacellum Streniae (cf. strenae) on the Carinae to the Arx (Varro, Ling. 5. 47; Festus, 372 Lindsay). The position of Summa Sacra Via is, however, disputed by modern scholars, who variously locate it close to the Basilica of *Maxentius or near the arch of *Titus. Following the fire of ce 64, the street became a noble avenue, leading from the forum to the entrance to the *Domus Aurea, which was flanked by shops for jewellers, and other luxury-traders.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions,

(1) through Amiternum and

(2) through *Asculum Picenum, carried it to the *Adriatic.

Article

Stephen Mitchell

Via Sebaste, the Roman key to the control and pacification of *Pisidia, in the southern part of the Augustan province of *Galatia. It ran from the coast of *Pamphylia (probably *Perge), through the Döşeme pass (known to Polybius as the Climax) into the Pisidian highlands, past the Roman colonies or colonial settlements of Comama and Apollonia, until it reached the caput viae, Pisidian *Antioch (2). A further extension continued east to the colonies of Iconium and Lystra. According to *milestones it was completed in 6 bce by the governor of Galatia, Cornutus Arruntius Aquila. Archaeological remains show that it was a highway between 6 and 8 m. (20–6 ft.) broad, which could carry wheeled traffic along its entire length. Its significance may be compared with that of the *via Domitia in Gallia Narbonensis, of the *via Egnatia in Macedonia, and of the road built from Pergamum to Pamphylia at the creation of the Asian province by M'.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Highway built (109ce) by *Trajan, which replaced the *via Appia as the usual route between *Beneventum and *Brundisium. It touched Aequum Tuticum, *Aecae, *Herdonia, *Canusium, *Barium, and *Gnathia. Its identification with the republican via Minucia mentioned by *Cicero (Att.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Via Valeria, an important road that ran eastwards from Rome to its colony of *Alba Fucens (founded 303 bce), and later to Aternum on the *Adriatic. Of great antiquity, it may have originated as a *transhumance track, used by shepherds taking their flocks into the *Apennines to graze on the summer pastures. The first 28 km. (18 mi.) comprised the via Tiburtina. The extension of the road to Alba Fucens may have been the work of the censor M. Valerius Maximus in 307 bce (Livy, 9. 43. 25). This later became a paved highway, perhaps in the censorship of M. Valerius Messalla (154 bce) and was the via Valeria proper (cf. Strabo, 5. 238). Finally, the emperor *Claudius continued the road as the via Claudia Valeria from Cerfennia to the Adriatic.

Article

David Paniagua

Vibius Sequester is the author of the De fluminibus, fontibus, lacubus, nemoribus, paludibus, montibus, gentibus per litteras, a short repertoire of geographical names mentioned by Virgil, Silius, Lucan and Ovid. The text, written at the end of the 4th or in the 5th century ce for the author’s son, Vergilianus, was likely intended to be used at school as an instrument providing basic information about the collected toponyms and ethnonyms. Despite the occasional mistakes in the text, Sequester’s repertoire represent a fine instance of school culture in Western Late Antiquity. The work was much appreciated by Italian humanists, which explains that it was copied in nearly 50 recentiores manuscripts; all of them, however, descend from a second-half of the 9th century manuscript (Vat. Lat. 4929).Vibius Sequester was the author of a short alphabetic repertoire of geographical names mentioned in Latin poetry, probably compiled at the end of the 4th or in the 5th century .

Article

Vienna  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Vienna (mod. Vienne), a town in Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), *civitas-capital of the *Allobroges. Perhaps created a colonia Latina by *Caesar, it was made a full colony by *Gaius(1) (as Colonia Iulia Augusta Florentia Vienna; see colonization, roman). It subsequently flourished, even though, in 69, it narrowly escaped destruction from A.

Article

John Wilkes

Viminacium (mod. Kostolac), on the Danube east of Belgrade, was a Celtic settlement (see celts) which became a legionary fortress and city in *Moesia Superior. Its permanent garrison (probably from ce 56/7 ) was Legio VII Claudia (see legion); for a period under *Trajan it was also occupied by Legio IV Flavia.

Article

Viminal  

One of the *Seven hills of Rome. It lay between the *Esquiline and the *Quirinal.

Article

John Wilkes

On the Danube, lay in the territory of the *Boii, a Celtic people (see celts) included within *Pannonia (Superior). In the 1st cent. ce it was garrisoned by the Ala Flavia Domitiana Augusta Britannica milliaria civium Romanorum (under *Domitian: CIL 3. 15197; see alae). At the beginning of *Trajan's reign, probably on the occasion of his visit in 98, Legio XIII Gemina (see legion) was moved there from *Poetovio and began the construction of a legionary fortress before it departed for the Dacian Wars (CIL 3. 14359 no. 32). In its place came Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix, which remained until the end of Trajan's reign when it moved to *Carnuntum, while Legio X Gemina was moved from *Aquincum to become the permanent garrison at Vindobona.At some date in the 3rd cent. a civil settlement became a *municipium (CIL 3.

Article

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Vindonissa (mod. Windisch, Switzerland), a prehistoric site on the lower Aar, occupied c.17 ce by Legio XIII, which was replaced in 45–6 by Legio XXI Rapax (see legion), whose violent behaviour to the *Helvetii induced *Vespasian to send it elsewhere. Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis then held Vindonissa to c.

Article

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of considerable military activity during the conquest and afterwards. Numerous forts have been found hereabouts. A fortress of Legio XIV Gemina (see legion) was established at Wroxeter c.ce 55 until 66. Its legion was reoccupied by Legio XX Valeria in ce 75, which remained in occupation until c.ce 83/4. After this the fortress site was developed as the civitas capital of the *Cornovii. Late 1st-cent. baths, perhaps intended for the legion, were left incomplete, to be swept away by *Hadrian, in whose reign a normal forum-basilica replaced them. The forum is dated by a dedication to Hadrian of ce 120–30 by the civitas Cornoviorum (RIB 288). Big new public baths, architecturally combined with a shopping precinct and large public latrine (see sanitation), were built shortly after ce 150; they were provided with a great open-air swimming bath and a covered exercise hall.

Article

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east of Klagenfurt. At first the site of a Celtic *oppidum, terraces on the hillside were occupied by more than three square kilometres of buildings, including a forum, a temple, and a centre for the imperial cult constructed by the Norican peoples under *Augustus. Most of the buildings are in the classical style and date from the late 1st cent. bce to the reign of *Claudius. From here the Norici were administered by a Roman *conventus organization and the place was also the centre of the *conciliumprovinciae. Under Claudius a *municipium was established at Virunum (CIL 3. 11555: municipium Claudium Virunum), enrolled in the voting-tribe Claudia. Until the establishment of the legionary fortress at *Lauriacum under Marcus *Aurelius, Virunum was the residence of the governing procurator.