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Article

Franz A. W. Schehl and John Wilkes

Aquincum, on the Danube at Budapest, was the centre of the Illyrian-Celtic Eravisci, whose settlement lay on the Gellért hill, later the provincial capital of Lower Pannonia. Throughout the Roman period it was a key military base against the *Quadi and the Sarmatian *Iazyges. From *Vespasian it was an auxiliary cavalry station (see auxilia) and under *Domitian (c.ce 89) an earth and timber fortress was constructed by Legio II Adiutrix. After serving in *Trajan's Dacian and Parthian wars (when it was replaced by X Gemina) the legion returned as a permanent garrison at Aquincum, except for two further periods of detachment, 161–7 and under *Septimius Severus, when its place was taken by IV Flavia Felix. Around the camp a *canabae developed its own administration, while the city of Aquincum, a *municipium (Aelium) under Hadrian and colonia (Septimia) under Severus extending over 50 ha.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

A name originally applied to the area bounded by the Garonne, the Pyrenees, and the bay of Biscay. The Aquitani are described as differing from the other Gauls in speech, customs, and physique, and archaeologically their culture is distinguished by several simple Hallstatt survivals. They were divided into many small tribes which were defeated in 56 bce by P. *Licinius Crassus (2) and finally subdued after campaigns in 38 and 27 bce. Augustus made Aquitania an imperial province (see provincia), but extended it to include the Celtic tribes to the Loire. It was eventually governed from *Burdigala (mod. Bordeaux). Under the later empire the Augustan province was divided into three: Aquitania Prima and Secunda (capitals at Bourges and Bordeaux respectively), and Novempopulana (the original Aquitania, with its capital at Eauze). Greater Aquitania soon became famous for its wealth, based on agriculture and trade. Through the works of *Ausonius and modern archaeological discoveries we are particularly well informed about the sophisticated upper-class lifestyle of the 4th cent.

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Arae Flaviae (mod. Rottweil), on the Neckar. In ce 74 the Roman Rhine–Danube frontier was shortened by carrying a road south-eastwards from Strasburg (*Argentorate) to the *Danube. A fort was built at the point where another road coming up from Vindonissa joined it. At the same time a civilian settlement, ‘The Flavian Altars’, was developed as a centre of the imperial cult devoted to the ruling dynasty (see ruler-cult).

Article

Arausio  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

A town in Gallia Narbonensis (mod. Orange). Near here the *Cimbri defeated Cn. Mallius and Q. *Servilius Caepio (1) with huge losses (105 bce). Under Octavian a colony for *veterans of Legio II Gallica (Colonia Firma Iulia Arausio Secundanorum) was established on land taken from the federation of the Cavares (which included the Tricastini) and neighbouring peoples. Fascinating details of the *centuriation are preserved on marble tablets, of which many fragments have been recovered. Several important monuments survive, including the magnificent theatre, with an enigmatic semicircular structure adjoining, two temples, and the triumphal arch (possibly associated with the suppression of the rebellion of Florus and *Iulius Sacrovir in ce 21, though this remains controversial) which stands outside the north gate.

Article

Arcadia  

James Roy

The central region of the Peloponnese, reaching the sea only in the SW (territory of Phigalia). It is separated by mountains from its neighbours (less so in the west towards *Elis and in the south towards Sparta), and divided internally by mountains into upland valleys. The area is mainly drained by the river *Alpheus and its tributaries, but in the east and north-east closed basins with no overground drainage were until recently liable to flooding. The valleys offer limited fertile areas, and grazing for sheep and goats; Arcadia was the home of the goat-god *Pan. Limited economic resources left Arcadia as a relatively poor area of Greece, and emigrant Arcadian *mercenaries were well known in the 5th and 4th cents. bce. Known Mycenaean sites in Arcadia are few but interesting (notably the LH IIIB/C cemetery at Palaiokastro in west Arcadia). The Arcadian dialect, resembling Cypriot, differed markedly from other Peloponnesian dialects. Arcadians shared a common Arcadian identity, expressed in myth (e.g. their common ancestor *Arcas), but also in the 5th-cent.

Article

Ardea  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

A city of the Rutuli, a Latin people. Although 4.5 km. (3 mi.) from the sea, it served as a port for *Latium. First settled in the bronze age, its elaborate defences and rich temples that long served as federal sanctuaries for the Latin League confirm the tradition that Ardea was once an important city, worthy of signing a separate treaty with Rome (444 bce). In 442 a Latin colony (see ius latii) strengthened Ardea against the *Volsci and in 390M. *Furius Camillus, it was said, set out from here to repel the Gauls. Apparently, too, Ardea remained loyal in the Latin War (Livy 8. 12). A Samnite raid c.315 bce and subsequently malaria caused Ardea to decline. However, the erection of numerous villas and possibly the dispatch of a Hadrianic colony prevented the village from entirely disappearing. In republican times Ardea served as a state prison; later its fields supported the imperial *elephants.

Article

Arelate  

John Frederick Drinkwater

A town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Arles-sur-Rhône. Literary references to its Greek origins have been confirmed by archaeology. It became important with the construction of the ‘Fossae Marianae’ and was used as a naval base by Caesar against *Massilia (49 bce). A colony of veterans of the sixth legion (Colonia Iulia Paterna Sextanorum Arelate) was founded here in 46 bce on land taken mainly from Massilia. Arelate was much enlarged by Augustus, to whom the earliest surviving town-wall and probably the still visible east gate are due, and further significantly developed by the Flavians. Early buildings still visible are the forum, magnificent *amphitheatre (136 m. × 107 m. (446 × 351 ft.) externally), and theatre. An extensive suburb, linked by a bridge, developed at Trinquetaille. The original importance of Arelate was due to its position as a port of transhipment for seagoing vessels. In the Later empire it gained hugely in status as an occasional imperial residence: *Constantine I ordered the first Christian council here in 314.

Article

Edward Harris

The Areopagus council was the most respected court in Classical Athens. It had jurisdiction in trials for intentional homicide, intentional wounding, poisoning, and arson. The Areopagus could launch investigations into crimes on its own initiative or at the command of the assembly and exercised surveillance over religious matters. The assembly might also delegate specific tasks to the Areopagus. There is no reason to think that the Areopagus acquired additional powers during the Persian Wars later removed by the reforms of Ephialtes. During the Roman period, the Areopagus was the leading political body alongside the council and assembly, and the herald of the Areopagus one of the most prestigious offices.The Areopagus was the most respected political institution in Classical Athens and retained its prestige down to the Roman Empire. Lycurgus(Leoc. 12) called it the finest example of justice in all of Greece. Demosthenes(23.65) claims that “in this tribunal alone no defendant who has been convicted or accuser who has lost has even proved that his case was wrongly decided.” .

Article

John Frederick Drinkwater

Perhaps first occupied as one of *Drusus' castella, it was garrisoned c. 12–43 ce by Legio II Augusta, then by legionary detachments including one of XXI Rapax, who constructed the first basalt wall. Legio VIII was transferred here c.80. Its 2nd-cent. fortress (606×300 m.; 663×328 yds.) was defended by an earth bank with a 90-cm. (35-in.) thick revetment wall of small blocks and brick borders. From the 3rd cent. Argentorate was exposed to barbarian attack, and in the mid-4th cent. its original wall was fronted by another, 2.5 m. (8.2 ft.) thick, of reused masonry with bastions c.25 m. (82 ft.) apart. In this period the *canabae, previously important, were given up as the civil population crowded into the fortress.

Article

John F. Lazenby

Arginusae, small islands between Lesbos and the mainland (now Garipadasi and Kalemadasi), scene of a battle between the Athenian and Spartan fleets in 406 bce. There is some doubt about dispositions, but Sparta's 120 triremes were probably in a single line abeam, Athens' 150 in a double line abeam, possibly on either side of the westernmost island. *Xenophon (1) says the Athenians, on this occasion having the inferior fleet, adopted this formation in order to prevent the enemy breaking through their line in the manœuvre known as the *‘diekplous', and then swinging round to attack from the stern. The result was a victory for the Athenians, but this was marred by the failure to pick up survivors from their crippled ships, when a storm arose.

Article

Argos  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Argos (1) (city), in the southern part of the Argive plain 5 km. (3 mi.) from the sea, at the foot of the Larissa hill which was occupied from prehistoric, through Classical and Hellenistic, to Frankish and Turkish times. A low hill, the Aspis, which has remains of earlier bronze age occupation, formed part of the city. Middle bronze age remains have been found over a wide area (the Deiras ridge, and the South Quarter), and a Mycenaean cemetery with chamber-tombs on the Deiras. Mycenaean Argos appears to have been at its height in Mycenaean IIIA–B (roughly later 14th–13th cents.) at which time the Aspis was fortified; these fortifications were rebuilt in the Classical period. After the disintegration of *Mycenaean civilization, a community continued to live on the Aspis, burying its dead in the Deiras cemetery. By the end of the 10th cent. a new community had grown up on the flanks of the Larissa, and it seems sensible to associate this with the settlement at Argos of a population of *Dorians.

Article

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Argos (2) Amphilochicum, traditionally founded by *Amphilochus after the Trojan War, on the eastern shore of the Ambraciote Gulf. In its struggles against *Ambracia (Thuc. 2. 68) it was helped by Athens and *Acarnania, and played its part in Athenian operations in NW Greece in the early years of the *Peloponnesian War.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Ariminum (mod. Rimini), on the Adriatic, was an *Umbrian and Gallic settlement, which became a Latin colony (see ius latii) in 268 bce (Vell. Pat. 1. 14). An important harbour and road-centre, Ariminum was the key to *Gaul (Cisalpine), controlling the bottle-neck between Apennines and Adriatic (Polyb. 3. 61, etc. ; Livy 24. 44, etc. ; Strabo 5. 217). It remained loyal to Rome against *Hannibal (Livy 27. 10) and obtained Roman *citizenshipc.89 bce (Plin. HN 3. 115). Surviving sack by *Sulla, occupation by *Caesar, confiscation and colonization by the *triumvirs, attacks by Flavians (ce 69) and Goths (538), it became one of five towns composing the pentapolis maritima under the Ravenna exarchs (App. BCiv. 1. 67, 4. 3; Plut. Caes.32; Tac. Hist. 3. 41; Procop. 2. 10). Surviving monuments include the arch of Augustus, marking the end of the *via Flaminia, and a Tiberian bridge.

Article

Arpi  

Geraint Dyfed Barri Jones and T. W. Potter

Arpi, in Italy, Argos Hippion or Argyrippa, the largest of the *Daunian cities, in the Tavoliere of Apulia. It was in existence from at least as early as the 6th cent. bce, and made a treaty with Rome in 326 bce (Livy 9. 13). Thenceforth it flourished. It surrendered to *Hannibal, who wintered there in 215 bce, and lost its port when the Romans built the colony of *Sipontum in 194 bce.

Article

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine suffragio (see citizenship, roman), 305–303 bce (Diod. Sic. 20. 90; Livy 9. 44, 10. 1). After 188 it enjoyed full citizenship, being administered as a *praefectura and, after 90, as a *municipium (Livy 38.

Article

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Arretium (mod. Arezzo), north-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bce it was an important base for Roman operations in north Italy, and it acquired additional importance in the mid-2nd cent. from the construction of the *via Cassia, of which it was the first terminal. It became a *municipium in the 2nd cent. bce and a colony under Sulla, and again under Caesar. From it comes a fine series of archaic and later bronzes, notably the Chimaera (cf. also Livy 28. 45, where Arretium supplies large quantities of bronze weapons for *Scipio Africanus' African expedition); and for nearly a century after c.30 bce its red-gloss table wares, both plain and relief-moulded, dominated the markets of the Roman world (see pottery, roman).

Article

Eric Herbert Warmington and Simon Hornblower

Artemidorus (2) (fl. 104–101 BCE), a Greek of *Ephesus; his name means ‘gift of *Artemis', the city’s most important goddess. He voyaged along Mediterranean shores, outer Spain (and Gaul?), and in *Alexandria (1) wrote eleven geographical books (Περίπλους, Τὰ γεωγραφούμενα, Γεωγραφίας Βιβλία), often quoted. His records, especially of distances in western regions, including (misapplied) use of Roman measurements, were fair, with errors and confusions (K. Miller, Mappaemundi (1898), 6. 127 ff.). For eastern waters and Ethiopia Artemidorus relied on *Agatharchides, adding distances and details as far as Cape Guardafui; for India, on *Alexander (3) the Great's writers and *Megasthenes. He made two calculations of the inhabited world's length and two of its breadth, without determining positions by latitude and longitude. He was an important intermediary source between Agatharchides and *Strabo. A remarkable new papyrus of Artemidorus, including *maps and other drawings, was published in 2008.

Article

Piero Treves and Antony Spawforth

Artemisium, a promontory on the NE coast of *Euboea, so called from a temple of Artemis Proseoa on this site. The place is perhaps to be identified with the village of Potaki near the bay of Pevki. An ancient shipwreck yielding bronze statuary was found in the 1920s. For the naval battle of 480 bcesee artemisium, battle of.

Article

Ascra  

John Buckler

Ascra (local form: Askre), a Greek village in the territory of *Thespiae, founded by Diocles and the *Aloadae, best known as the home of *Hesiod, who defamed it forever by describing it as ‘bad in winter, hard in summer, but never good’ (Op.640). Located in the Valley of the Muses on Mt. *Helicon, the site of the village is still marked by a stone tower.

Article

Edward Togo Salmon

Asculum Picenum, the capital of *Picenum, strongly placed amid imposing mountains near the Adriatic on the river Truentus (Strabo 5. 241); modern Ascoli Piceno, with numerous ancient remains. Rome captured Asculum in 268 bce and continued the *via Salaria to it (Florus 1. 14). The *Social War (3) broke out here, but the Romans recovered the town after a two-year siege and grimly punished it (App.