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Annia Galeria Faustina (2), younger daughter of *Antoninus Pius and the *elder Faustina, was betrothed at *Hadrian's wish to the future L. *Verus in ce 138; this was set aside by Antoninus after Hadrian's death in favour of his wife's nephew M. *Aurelius. The marriage took place in 145, probably the earliest possible date, when Faustina was aged about 15. Her first child, Domitia Faustina, was born on 30 November 147 (Fasti Ostienses) and she at once became Augusta. She bore Marcus at least a dozen children, six of whom survived her, five daughters (the eldest being *Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla) and a son, *Commodus. The latter was alleged to be illegitimate; Faustina's loyalty as well as her marital fidelity were subject to question, not least in reports that she encouraged the rebellion of C. *Avidius Cassius. But Marcus, who gave her the title ‘mother of the camp’ (mater castrorum) in 174, ignored these rumours and had her deified on her death late in 175 at Halala in *Cappadocia (renamed Faustinopolis).

Article

Ernst Badian

Titus Annius Milo, of a prominent family of *Lanuvium, as tribune 57 bce worked for *Cicero's recall from exile and, with P. *Sestius, organized armed gangs to oppose those led by P. *Clodius Pulcher which had long prevented it. Fighting between Clodius and Milo in the city continued for several years, since—short of the *senatus consultum ultimum, impossible to pass—there was no legitimate way of using public force to suppress it. Both Milo and Clodius ascended through the official career (see cursus honorum), at times unsuccessfully prosecuting each other for *vis, until Milo's men met and defeated Clodius' near *Bovillae in January 52. Clodius, wounded in the fighting, was killed on Milo's orders, chiefly to clear the way for Milo's candidacy for the consulship of 52, elections for which had been prevented by Clodius with *Pompey's support. After continued rioting Pompey was made sole consul and passed legislation including a strict law on vis, under which Milo was prosecuted.

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Arnaldo Momigliano and Barbara Levick

Annius Vinicianus, son of L. Vinicianus who conspired in 42 ce, and son-in-law of Cn. *Domitius Corbulo, was legate (see legatus) of Legio V Macedonica under him in 63 when he was not yet quaestor. In 65 he escorted *Tiridates (4) to Rome. He gave his name to a plot against *Nero at *Beneventum (summer 66).

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Brian Campbell

Appius Annius Gallus, *suffect consul between 62 and 69 ce; sent by *Otho against the Vitellians in NE Italy; in 70 he was legate of Upper Germany, against C. *Iulius Civilis.

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Anthony R. Birley

Annius Verus, Marcus, grandfather of *Marcus Aurelius, from Ucubi (mod. Espejo) in *Baetica, became a patrician under *Vespasian, and was *suffect consul in ce 97. He was influential under *Hadrian, to whom he was probably related, being city prefect (*praefectus urbi), and holding a second (‘ordinary’) consulship (see consul) in 121, and a third in 126. Verus' attractive personality was combined with an astute matrimonial policy: his wife Rupilia Faustina belonged to the republican nobility; one daughter-in-law was the heiress Domitia Lucilla the younger, M. Aurelius' mother; a son-in-law was the future *Antoninus Pius. Still alive when Antoninus was adopted by Hadrian, Verus was remembered with affection by M. Aurelius, who had grown up in his house.

Article

Carlos Machado

The annona was the imperial service responsible for overseeing the supply of key food items to the city of Rome and the army. Primarily concerned with grain, the service became increasingly involved in the provisioning of other commodities, such as olive oil, wine, and pork. By the end of the 3rd century, the annona was a complex machinery involving private and public agents in different parts of the empire, overseen by the prefect of the annona, based in Rome. The operation of this system is documented in literary texts, administrative documents such as papyri and writing tablets, inscriptions, and a rich archaeological record, in Rome and in the provinces. However, the precise working of the system and the degree to which it was controlled by the Roman state remain open to debate. The annona was also involved in the supply of the army, especially with regards to provisions brought from distant producing centres. During the later empire, the system became more centralised, being overseen by the praetorian prefecture.

Article

Antinous, companion of Hadrian in Bithynia, born perhaps c.110 ce, was *Hadrian's companion on his longest provincial tour and in antiquity was generally regarded as the emperor's ‘beloved’ in the pederastic sense, although this is open to debate (e.g. Turcan). His death by drowning in the Nile in October 130, claimed by some to have been suicide or a ritual sacrifice, was mourned extravagantly by Hadrian. He founded the city of *Antinoöpolis near the place of death, and commissioned a statue-type, now lost, which celebrated the youthful beauty of Antinous and, perhaps, its precariousness. Hadrian also fostered a posthumous cult of Antinous as a hero or god (see hero-cult), popular in the east. See *homosexuality.

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Theodore John Cadoux and Barbara Levick

Antistius Vetus, Gaius, under whose father *Caesar had served in Further Spain as quaestor (69 bce), was Caesar's quaestor pro praetore in Syria (45–4). He opposed Q. *Caecilius Bassus (see cornificius, q.), but in 44 joined the Liberators (legate of *Brutus in 43: high praise in Cic. Ad Brut. 1. 11). He next appears as legate of *Octavian, tackling the *Salassi (35–34?), duly became consul (suffect 30), and, as consular legate, fought the *Cantabri (26–24). He was made *patrician, probably in 29 (ILS 948). His son was consul in 6 bce and his grandsons Gaius and Lucius in ce 23 and a few years later; L. *Antistius Vetus was his great-grandson.

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Arnaldo Momigliano and M. T. Griffin

Antistius Vetus, Lucius, of a patrician family from Gabii, consul with *Nero in 55 ce, was legate of Upper Germany (55–6), but was recalled when planning a waterway to connect the Rhine (Rhenus) with the Rhône (Rhodanus). In 62 he vainly urged his son-in-law *Rubellius Plautus to take up arms against Nero.

Article

Antistius Adventus Postumius Aquilinus, Quintus, senator from Thibilis in *Numidia, held important posts under M. *Aurelius. Decorated for service as a legionary legate in the Parthian War (ce 162–6), he became governor of Arabia and consul. Probably in ce 168, at the outset of the Marcomannic War, he held a special command over ‘the defence zone (praetentura) of Italy and the Alps’.

Article

Antium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 72; Polyb. 3. 22), but shortly thereafter *Volsci captured it, and for 200 years Antium was apparently the principal Volscian city. In the 4th cent. bce it was the centre of Volscian resistance to Rome, that ended only when C. *Maenius captured the Antiate fleet and made possible the establishment of a citizen colony (see colonization, roman), 338 bce (Livy, bks. 2–8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. bks. 4–10). Antiate pirates, however, continued active even after 338 (Strabo 5. 232). After being sacked by C. *Marius (1), Antium became a fashionable resort (Augustus had a villa here), with celebrated temples (App. Bciv. 1. 69, 5. 26; Hor. Carm.

Article

Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

Antonia (1), daughter of M. *Antonius (2) and Antonia, daughter of C. *Antonius ‘Hybrida’, in 44 bce was engaged to M. *Aemilius Lepidus (4), but the engagement was broken after the disgrace of Lepidus' father M. *Aemilius Lepidus (3), and her father gave her to Pythodorus, a wealthy notable of *Tralles.

Article

Antonia (2), elder daughter (‘maior’, Suet. Ner. 5. 1; wrongly ‘minor’, Tac. Ann. of M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony) and *Octavia (2), born in 39 bce, was the wife of L. *Domitius Ahenobarbus (2). Their children were Gnaeus, consul ce 32 (the father of *Nero), Domitia (wife of C.

Article

Antonia (3), younger daughter (‘minor’, Suet. Calig 1. 1; Claud. of M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony) and *Octavia (2), born 31 January 36 bce, married Nero *Claudius Drusus; their children were *Germanicus, Livilla (*Livia Iulia), and *Claudius (cf. IG Rom.

Article

Antonia (4), daughter of *Claudius and Aelia Paetina, married in 41 ce Cn. Pompeius Magnus and afterwards Faustus Cornelius Sulla. Her first husband was put to death by Claudius, the second by *Nero. A story retailed by the elder *Pliny (1) that she was to accompany the conspirator C. *Calpurnius Piso (2) when he entered the praetorian camp after Nero's murder was rejected by *Tacitus (1) (Ann., probably rightly as she was not punished with the other conspirators. But later Nero had her killed as a revolutionary, though *Suetonius (Ner. gives as the real reason her refusal to marry Nero after *Poppaea Sabina's death in 65. These stories reflect the threat posed by any husband of hers to Nero, especially as he had no heir.

Article

Born at Lanuvium in Latium in 86, was the son of T. Aurelius Fulvus (consul 89) and grandson of another Aurelius Fulvus (consul 70 and 85), from Nîmes (Nemausus). His mother Arria Fadilla was daughter of *Arrius Antoninus (consul 69 and 97), whose names he bore as well as Boionius from his maternal grandmother: T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus. He married *Annia Galeria Faustina (1), and became consul in 120. Apart from the traditional magistracies, his only posts were those of imperial legate in Italy (an innovation of *Hadrian), in his case in Etruria and Umbria, where he owned land, and proconsul of Asia (135–136).His links with the Annii Veri, combined with his wealth, popularity, and character, led *Hadrian to choose him as adoptive son and successor on the death of L. *Aelius Caesar. Given *imperium and the tribunicia potestas (see tribuni plebis) on 25 February 138, he became Imperator T.

Article

Ernst Badian

Antonius, Marcus, son of M. *Antonius (1) and father of Mark Antony (M. *Antonius (2)) and of L. *Antonius (Pietas), an easy-going man, dominated by his noble wife Julia (see *Iulius Caesar (2), Lucius). As praetor (74 bce) he received an *imperium rhetorically described as infinitum against the pirates (see piracy).

Article

Geoffrey Walter Richardson and Barbara Levick

Antonius, Gaius, second son of M. *Antonius (Creticus). *Caesar's legate in 49 bce, he was blockaded by a Pompeian fleet (see pompeius magnus (1), cn.), on Curicta in the Adriatic and forced to surrender. After his praetorship in 44 he went to Macedonia; the senate rescinded the appointment late in that year. He was besieged and captured in Apollonia by *Brutus (March 43); *Cicero urged Brutus to execute him.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Barbara Levick

Antonius, Iullus, second son of the Triumvir Mark Antony (M. *Antonius (2)) and *Fulvia, born 43 bce, was brought up in Rome by *Octavia (2) and married in 21 to her elder daughter by C. *Claudius Marcellus (1) (consul 50 bce). Praetor (13), consul (10), and proconsul of Asia (7/6?), he was condemned (2 bce) for adultery with *Iulia (3), entailing designs on the Principate, and committed suicide. His son Lucius, last of the male line, died in ce 25. Iullus wrote verse, including an epic Diomedeia in 12 books; Horace addressed Carm. 4. 2 to him.

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Geoffrey Walter Richardson and Barbara Levick

Antonius Antyllus, Marcus, whose cognomen recalls Hercules' son Anto, the family's Tiburtine ancestor, was elder son of the triumvir Mark Antony (M. *Antonius (2)) and *Fulvia. In 37 bce at *Tarentum he was betrothed to *Iulia (3). He assumed the toga of manhood after *Actium and was executed by *Octavian after the capture of *Alexandria (1) (30).