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Rhetorician, author of a six-book Chronological Tables covering oriental, Greek, and Roman history from *Belus and Ninus to *Pompey (61/0 bce), subsequently used by *Varro, *Plutarch, Sex. *Iulius Africanus, and *Eusebius. Other historical and rhetorical works are also attested.

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Celeus  

Nicholas J. Richardson

Celeus, as ruler of *Eleusis in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (96 ff.), accepts the disguised Demeter as nurse of his son *Demophon (2).

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Michael Silk

A cento is a poem or poetic sequence made up of recognizable shorter sequences from one or more existing poems, in Byzantine Greek called κέντρων (as Eust. Il. 1099. 51; schol. on Ar.Nub. 450 β Holwerda) from the later Latin use of ‘cento’ (‘patchwork’). Examples of this whimsical genre are few before the imperial age; early anticipations include the mock-oracle at Ar. Pax 1090–3, which is based on (without strictly following) Homeric phrases. With some exceptions (e.g. the Byzantine *Christus Patiens, based on tragedy, and cf. Lucian, Symp. 17), later examples tend likewise to use Homer, as with the epigram at Anth. Pal. 9. 381, the anonymous ‘parody’ at Dio Chrys. Or. 32 (many parodies, so-called, are virtually centos), and the Ὁμηροκέντρωνες of the Byzantine empress Eudocia.

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Old *comedy poet active c.400 bce (IG 22. 2325. 69 = 5 B 1 col. 3. 3 Mette; Lys. 21. 4).

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He negotiated c.226 with *Aratus (2) of Sicyon and *Antigonus (3) Doson to secure Macedonian support for the *Achaean Confederacy against *Cleomenes (2) of Sparta; he commanded 1,000 Megalopolitan infantrymen at the battle of Sellasia, 222; after the defeat of Sparta he framed a new constitution for his city. Anecdotes testify to his devotion to *Homer.There are few book-fragments: from the Iambi only one choliambic line (fr. 14 Powell) survives from a poem apparently condemning loose living; other frs. are all from the Meliambi (poems lyrical in form but with satirical elements), of which substantial remains are also preserved in POxy.1082. These poems are ethical in content, expressing concern for the poor, questioning conventional attitudes, and displaying impatience with speculative thought, features consistent with the label ‘Cynic’ applied to Cercidas in the papyrus; but in view of his involvement in public life, the extent and nature of his .

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Cercops of Miletus (? 6th cent. bce), epic poet, to whom (or to Hesiod) is ascribed the Aegimius (on the Dorian hero *Aegimius who fought against the *Centaurs).

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Martin Litchfield West

Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, Ἀγὼν Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου, abbreviation of Περὶ Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου καὶ τοῦ γένους καὶ ἀγῶνος αὐτῶν (‘On Homer and Hesiod, their Ancestry and Their contest’), title of an anonymous treatise preserved in a Florence MS. It is a joint life of *Homer and *Hesiod, written round an account of a contest between them supposed to have taken place at *Chalcis (the circumstances inspired by Hes. Op. 650–60). Hesiod is adjudged victor, despite the crowd's acclamation of Homer, after each has recited ‘the best’ part of his poetry: the passages are chosen to show Homer as the poet of war, Hesiod as the poet of peace (cf. Ar. Ran.1033–6). The story is familiar to Varro and later writers, ignored in the Lives of Homer. The treatise as we have it dates from the Antonine period, but much of it was taken bodily from an earlier source (it agrees closely with a papyrus fragment of the 3rd cent. bce, Catalogue of the Literary Papyri in the British Museum, ed.

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Chaeremon (1), a tragic poet active about the middle of the 4th cent. bce. *Aristotle, Rh. 3. 12, says that his work was suitable for reading (rather than performance) and that he was ‘precise like a speech-writer’ (see logographers). Indeed one fragment of his work (fr. 14b) contains an *acrostic giving his name. Elsewhere (Poet. 1) Aristotle refers to his Centaur as ‘a rhapsody combining all the metres’, but *Athenaeus (1) calls this work a ‘polymetric drama’ (13. 608e), and in fact it was probably a satyr play (see satyric drama). Athenaeus also cites several fragments to show that Chaeremon was fond of flowers (13. 608d–f). The longest fragment (fr. 14), from the Oeneus, is a description of sleeping girls (*maenads or votaries of *Aphrodite), notable for vivid detail and erotic kitsch. Other fragments, however, are conventionally sententious.

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Chaeremon of *Alexandria (1), where he held a priesthood: Greek writer on Egypt. He taught the young *Nero. His writings treated Egyptian history, religion, customs, astrology, and hieroglyphic writings. A Stoic viewpoint is visible.

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Chaeris  

Nigel Wilson

Chaeris, a pupil of *Aristarchus (2), whose text of *Homer he defended, wrote also a commentary on *Pindar and *Aristophanes (1), and perhaps a Τέχνη γραμματική (‘art of grammar’), all lost.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Chamaeleon, of *Heraclea (3) Pontica (c.350–after 281 bce), Greek *Peripatetic writer; almost no biographical details exist. He wrote works on *satyric drama and comedy, and studies of a number of early poets, including *Homer, *Pindar, and *Aeschylus. These works, which were anecdotal and uncritical, are often cited by *Athenaeus (1): their hallmark was the deduction of biographical data from references in comedy and from the writers’ own works, a technique already visible in the Aristotelian ‘Constitution of Athens’ (: see athēnaiōn politeia. Chamaeleon's philosophical writings, ‘On Drunkenness’, ‘On Pleasure’ (alternatively attributed to *Theophrastus), ‘On the Gods’, and his ‘Speech of Encouragement’ (Προτρεπτικός), also seem to have stood firmly in the Aristotelian tradition.

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Chares (2), of *Mytilene, chamberlain (eisangeleus) of *Alexander (3) the Great. His voluminous Histories of Alexander contained rich and romantic detail, notably the experiment with proskynēsis (see alexander (3) the Great, § 10) and the mass marriage at *Susa. He was used by *Plutarch and colourful extracts are provided by *Athenaeus (1); but too little is known of his work for its influence to be defined.

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Chares (3), a writer of Gnomai (see gnōmē), from which over 50 lines are preserved, in a mutilated state, in a papyrus of the early 3rd cent. bce.

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Ewen Bowie

Author of the eight-book Chaereas and Callirhoë (Τὰ περὶ Χαιρέαν καὶ Καλλιρόην). He opens by naming himself and his city, *Aphrodisias, claiming to be secretary to an orator Athenagoras. All three names have been suspected as appropriate fictions, but both personal names appear on inscriptions of Aphrodisias, Athenagoras recurring in two prominent families. Papyri date Chariton not later than the mid-2nd cent. ce, but although scholars agree in making his, or *Xenophon (2)'s, the earliest of the novels surviving complete, dates are canvassed between the 1st cent. bce and *Hadrian's reign. His use of a historical character (Callirhoë's father is *Hermocrates, victor over the Athenians in 413 bce) suggests an early stage in the genre's development. The historical mise-en-scène, much quotation of *Homer, and allusion to many other classical authors (notably *Thucydides (2) and *Xenophon (1)) show some literary ambition, confirmed by careful avoidance of hiatus; yet Chariton's diction does not Atticize (see asianism and atticism); hence Papanikolaou (see bibliog.

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Cecil Maurice Bowra and Eveline Krummen

Pollux (9. 94–129) lists eighteen παιδιαί, children's songs often accompanied with some sort of action, and adds details about χαλκῆ μυῖα, a kind of Blind Man's Buff, χελιχελώνη, a kind of Prisoner's Base, and (9. 113) χυτρίνδα, a kind of Catch. Another such game was ἄνθεμα (Ath. 629c).

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Kenneth Dover

Chionides is treated by *Aristotle (Poet. 1448a33) as one of the two earliest Attic comic poets, and it is probable that he was the first recorded comic victor at the City *Dionysia, in 486 (Suda, entry under the name). Two plays ascribed to him, Heroes and Beggars, existed in Hellenistic times (Ath.

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One of the earliest known Athenian tragic poets. The *Suda says that he competed first in 523–520 bce, wrote 160 plays (a most unlikely figure), won thirteen victories, and, ‘according to some’, made innovations in *masks and costumes. He is also said to have competed against *Aeschylus and *Pratinas soon after 500 bce and (doubtfully) to have lived to compete against *Sophocles (1). From his work we have only two bold metaphors and one play title (Alope). He is probably not the Choerilus described in an anonymous line as ‘King among the Satyrs’.

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Choerilus of Samos, epic poet of the late 5th cent. bce, famed for his Persica. It was in more than one book, and contained a catalogue of the tribes that crossed the Hellespont with the Persians; it was still read in the 3rd cent. ce (Suppl. Hell. 314). Fragments show skill and originality. Choerilus may also have written Samiaca.

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Choerilus (3), of *Iasus, epic poet; travelled with *Alexander (3) the Great; was paid to celebrate him; a bad poet (Hor.Epist. 2. 1. 232–4, Ars P. 357–8; Porphyrion ad loc. ).

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Peter Wilson

At Athens the chorēgia was a leitourgia (*liturgy), or public service performed by a wealthy citizen for the *polis. A chorēgos (literally ‘leader of a chorus’) was responsible for the recruitment, training, maintenance, and costuming of choreutai (members of a chorus) for competitive performance at a festival. The same system of individual contribution was used to provide the Athenian navy with its ships (trierarchia: see trierarchy).The chorēgia was central to the organization and funding of the dramatic *festivals in Athens and its demes. The actors were appointed and remunerated separately by the polis, but the chorus involved the main part of the expense in these productions. In the Great *Dionysia, the main dramatic festival held annually, choruses were required for each of the various genres of performance: five for comedy (with 24 choreutai in each), three for tragedy and satyr-play (see satyric drama) (12 or 15 choreutai) and ten each for the two categories of *dithyramb, men's and boys’ (50 choreutai).