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Gyges king of *Lydia (c. 680–645 bce), founded the Mermnad dynasty by murdering King Candaules and marrying his widow (Hdt. 1. 8–14; cf. Pl.Resp. 2. 359d). The word tyrant (see tyranny) first appears in Greek applied to Gyges (Archil. fr. 19 West). He started the exploitation of *gold from the Pactolus; attacked *Miletus and *Smyrna, captured Colophon and sent sumptuous offerings to *Delphi. He gained Assyrian protection against the *Cimmerians, but lost it later by helping *Psammetichus I of Egypt. He was killed in a new Cimmerian invasion; his tomb was famous (Hipponax fr. 42 West) and has been identified in the royal tumulus cemetery at Bin Tepe. His son Ardys succeeded him.

Article

William Moir Calder and George Ewart Bean

Halys (the ‘Salt river’, so called from the salt springs in its upper course), the longest river in *Asia Minor (about 1,050 km. (650 miles) in length), now called Kızılırmak, the ‘Red river’. It rises near the Armenian border and flows in a great loop from south-west to north-east to join the *Euxine west of Amisus.

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Hama  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

An ancient city of north Syria, which became the centre of one of the Aramaean kingdoms of the early first millennium bce. Destroyed by Sargon II of Assyria at the end of the 8th cent., it revived as Epiphaneia in the Hellenistic period, but never rivalled its neighbour *Apamaea-Orontes.

Article

Hatra  

Malcolm Andrew Richard Colledge and Josef Wiesehöfer

Hatra (mod. al-Hadr) in semi-desert northern *Mesopotamia, c. 80 km. (50 mi.) south of Mosul, flourished as a semi-independent (trading) city and a religious centre (particularly of the sun-god Shamash) with water resources and territory between Rome and *Parthiac.90–240 ce/1, as impressive ruins show. About 500 inscriptions occur, mostly in (widespread) *Aramaic, often with Seleucid-era dating. German, then (1950s–1980s) British, French, American, Italian and Iraqi explorations have illuminated its predominantly (Semitic) Arab version of hybrid Semitic, Greek, Roman, and Iranian ‘Parthian’ culture.Iraqi soundings showed nomad encampment beginnings, then slow development through mud-brick phases into stone-using grandeur. Remote, with effective military, tribal, and religious organizations, it controlled and profited from the surrounding territory it called ‘Arabia’, and resisted Rome (e.g. *Trajan116 ce). Its earliest text (97/8ce) records one of twenty-one temple buildings. In the period c.

Article

J. David Hawkins

Capital city of the *Hittites, c.1650–1200 bce, near the modern village of Boğazköy (Boğazkale), 150 km. (93 mi.) east of Ankara in Turkey. The site has been under excavation by German archaeologists since 1906, and besides the massive Hittite occupation has produced pre- and post-Hittite levels. Among the principal finds has been the royal archives of thousands of *cuneiform clay tablets.

Article

John Manuel Cook and Simon Hornblower

Hecatomnus of *Mylasa, son and successor of Hyssaldomus, was *satrap (see mausolus) of the Persian province of *Caria after the fall of *Tissaphernes, and commanded the fleet in the Persian operations against *Cyprus in 390 bce (Diod. Sic. 14. 98). He made Greek dedications at *Labraunda and *Sinuri and was honoured at *Caunus (SEG 12. 470). After his death his children (*Mausolus and *Artemisia(2), *Idrieus and *Ada, *Pixodarus) ruled in succession as satraps and despots in SW Asia Minor.

Article

Malcolm Andrew Richard Colledge and Josef Wiesehöfer

Near Damghan, NE Iran, a site 8 km. (5 mi.) long identified by British excavators (1960s) as *Seleucus(1) I's foundation (cf. App. Syr. 57. 298: Hekatompolis) and as capital (also, Comis ?) of the Seleucid and Parthian province Comisene, created an imperial capital allegedly by the second king of *Parthia, Tiridates. Excavation has revealed Parthian cultural activity, particularly c. 217–50 bce, as signalled by finds of a stone bowl, pottery, amphora-rhyton, two potsherds with Parthian name-lists (the second probably to be dated to 78 bce); clay seals with un-Hellenic imprints; burials; a rectangular, six-tower, fortified courtyard-residence; and tall, squarish, mud-brick, vaulted ‘shrines’ with projections (recalling a Median fire-temple), filled in c.50 bce. *Isidorus (1) (1st cent. ce), Parthian Stations 9, reported Comisene had (only) ‘villages’.

Article

Heliodorus was the author of the Aethiopica, the latest and longest Greek novel to survive from antiquity. In his work, Heliodorus claims to be a Phoenician from Emesa, but there are good reasons against treating this as an authoritative autobiographical statement. The Aethiopica tells the adventures of Charicleia, the white daughter of the black queen and king of Ethiopia. Her mother abandons her, and she is brought up by foster-fathers in Ethiopia and Delphi. There she falls in love with the young Greek Theagenes, with whom she travels via Egypt to Ethiopia. They are almost sacrificed to the local gods, but Charicleia’s parents eventually recognise her. The protagonists become priests and marry. The novel is a narratologically ambitious work that draws on the structure of the Odyssey (in mediis rebus beginning, embedded heterodiegetic narratives) and takes these devices to a whole new level. A wide range of topics play important roles in the Aethiopica, such as religion, multiculturalism, identity, and epistemology.

Article

J. F. Healey

Heliopolis (mod. Baalbek) was the religious centre of the *Ituraean*tetrarchy, after whose dissolution it became a Roman veteran colony (15 bce) as part of the foundation of Beirut. The cult of the Heliopolitan triad, *Jupiter, *Venus, and *Mercury, became widespread in the Roman world. The huge 1st-cent. ce temple of Jupiter, usually understood as a manifestation of Hadad (Baʿal-Hadad having been worshipped here earlier), its two courtyards (completed 244–9 ce), the adjacent Antonine-period temple of Mercury-Bacchus (see dionysus), and another small circular temple are among the most impressive monuments of the Syrian school of Hellenistic architecture.

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The district of *Asia Minor closest to the *Hellespont. See dascylium; pharnabazus.

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Author of a history of *Persia (Persica) in five books; books 1–2 entitled Paraskeuastika (‘Introduction’, FGrH689 T 2) contained information on the country and its people. Fragments 1, 2 and 4, preserved verbatim in *Athenaeus(1), afford valuable insight into the life and atmosphere of the court of the Great King. Used in *Plutarch's Artaxerxes.

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Herodian (2) of eastern origin, perhaps from *Antioch(1), a subordinate official in Rome early in the 3rd cent. ce and probably an imperial freedman (see PIR I, II, III2 H 160), wrote a Greek History of the Empire after Marcus in eight books from M. *Aurelius to *Gordian III (ce 180–238).

Article

Yosef Yuval Tobi

The beginning of the Ḥimyari kingdom is reckoned at 110 bce, when the tribe of Ḥimyar split off from the Qatabān kingdom in the western Ḥaḍramawt, located in the southern Arabian Peninsula, and established its own capital in Ẓafār, located in southeast of our time Yarim. Starting in the 1st century ce, there were incessant conflicts between the kingdom of Ḥimyar and the kingdom of Sheba, whose seat of government was Ma’rib, until the year 175, when the Ḥimyarites completely conquered the kingdom of Sheba. They had taken over Qatabān some hundred years earlier. The religion of the kingdom, as in all other kingdoms in South Arabia at the time, was polytheist, but during the 4th century, the effects of monotheism began to take hold. No later than 384, King Malkīkarib Yuha’min (r. 375–400) had adopted Judaism as the state religion. The kingdom of Ḥimyar remained in a state of constant war with the Christian kingdom of Axūm in Ethiopia, on the western shore of the Red Sea, while the Ethiopians succeeded in even occupying militarily the city of Ẓafār for a short time. The tension between the two kingdoms reached its peak during the time of As’ar Yath’ar’s reign (more commonly known as Yūsuf Dhū Nuwās) (517–525), who acted ruthlessly against the Christians in his kingdom, especially those in Najrān. Because of this action, the army of Axūm invaded Yemen in 525 at the request of the Christian Byzantine emperor, bringing an end to the Jewish kingdom of Ḥimyar. In 531, Abraha the Ethiopian took over the reins of government in Yemen and expanded his kingdom’s realm of influence further north towards the central part of the Arabian Peninsula. A short time following his death, Persia wrestled control of the kingdom, with the assistance of Sayf Dhū Yazan, who, according to tradition, was one of the descendants of Joseph Dhū Nuwās. In 629, Yemen fell entirely to the armies of Islam.

Article

J. David Hawkins

People of ancient Anatolia, known principally from excavations at *Hattuša, where their royal archives of thousands of *cuneiform clay tablets were discovered. The term ‘Hittite’, adapted from the OT ḥtym, derives ultimately from the central Anatolian land of Hatti. As the chief language of the Hattuša archives, Hittite was deciphered in 1915 and recognized as Indo-European, forming with Luwian and Palaic, which are also known from Hattuša, the Anatolian group of Indo-European, its oldest known branch. Besides the cuneiform script, Hittite kings also used an epichoric hieroglyphic for writing monumental inscriptions in Luwian. See anatolian languages.

Hittite history divides into the Old Kingdom (c.1650–1500 bce), Middle Kingdom (c.1500–1400), and Empire (c.1400–1200). Following the establishment of the authority of Hattuša in central Anatolia, the Hittite kings conquered and dominated *Syria. At the fall of the Hittite empire, Hattuša was destroyed and the Hittite tradition of cuneiform literacy discontinued.

Article

John F. Lazenby

River of the Punjab (probably the Jhelum), where *Alexander(3) the Great defeated *Porus in 326 bce. After continually stretching the enemy by marching and countermarching along the river, Alexander crossed it before dawn under cover of a thunderstorm, probably with only 6,000 foot and 5,000 horse. Porus sent forward an advance force of Indian cavalry and chariots which was routed by Alexander's cavalry screen, and interspersed his infantry with *elephants, placing cavalry and chariots on the wings. But under attack by Alexander's cavalry, the Indian horse took refuge amongst the infantry, causing confusion, and uncovering its flanks and rear. In the centre the Macedonian infantry were able to open gaps in their line to accommodate elephants where necessary, and to use their sarisae (‘pikes’) to drive others back on their own infantry, after dislodging their mahouts. Virtually surrounded, the Indian army was all but annihilated, and Porus himself captured.

Article

Simon Hornblower

Hypsicratia, mistress of *Mithradates VI Eupator, who admiringly called her by the male form of the name, Hypsicrates (Plut. Pomp. 32. 8). Her commemorative funerary statue has been found at Phanagoreia on the Cimmerian *Bosporus (2); it calls her Hypsikrates, but makes clear she was female. The inscription perhaps (Bowersock) formed part of the restoration of Mithradates’ prestige in the time of his grand-daughter Dynamis.

Article

Jean-François Salles

Icaros (2) (mod. Failaka), an island off Kuwait, at the mouth of an ancient course of the Euphrates river. It was settled from the third millennium bce, and visited by an expedition sent by *Alexander(3) the Great to the Persian Gulf (Strabo 16. 3. 2): Ikaros might be the Hellenization (i.e. Greek version) of a local name. The *Seleucids built a fortress on Failaka, in use from the early 3rd to the mid-2nd cent. bce: it is 60 m. (200 ft.) square, and two temples were excavated inside the walls; two other sanctuaries were found outside. Greek material and inscriptions attest a Macedonian settlement which probably served as a military—and naval—outpost on the maritime route to *India. After the fall of the Seleucid empire, the island temporarily came under Characenian domination in the 1st cent. ce. A Christian church of the 6th cent. has recently been excavated.

Article

Idrieus  

Simon Hornblower

Idrieus (or Hidrieus), son of *Hecatomnus and younger brother of *Mausolus, was *satrap (see mausolus) of the Persian province of *Caria351–344 bce with his sister-wife *Ada. Idrieus helped *Phocion of Athens to suppress the revolt from Persia of *Cyprus (Diod. Sic. 16. 42: mid-340s). He was honoured at Ionian *Erythrae (SEG 31. 969, cf. RO 8) and made remarkably assertive Greek dedications at *Labraunda, including a temple with his own name prominent on the architrave (ILabraunda no. 16, cf. RO p. 434); there is another elegant Idrieus dedication from *Amyzon (OGI 235), and Idrieus and Ada were active at *Sinuri.

Article

India  

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

This country had early trade connections with the *Persian Gulf , but it remained unknown to Mediterranean peoples until the extension of the Persian empire to the Indus and the voyage of Darius' admiral *Scylax down the Kabul and Indus rivers and perhaps round Arabia to Suez (Hecataeus, FGrH214 F–294–9; Hdt. 3. 98 ff., 4. 44). Even so, India remained a land of fable and wonders (as in the Indica of *Ctesias , c.400 bce); it was believed to lie in the farthest east, yet Indians were confused with Ethiopians, and in popular belief India and *Ethiopia formed one country. The conquests of *Alexander(3) the Great (327–325) brought more accurate knowledge of NW India as far as the river Hyphasis (Beas) and vague information about the Ganges valley and Sri Lanka; and the voyage of *Nearchus informed the Greek world about the sea connection with the Persian Gulf. *Seleucus (1) I controlled the north-west but c.

Article

Romila Thapar and Amélie Kuhrt

Indo-Greeks were the Hellenistic kings of *Bactria and of the north-west of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent (see india), including *Gandhara, ruling from the mid-2nd cent. bce to the Christian era. They are known primarily from extensive numismatic evidence. The coins carry the bust of the king, usually characterized by fine portraiture, legends either in Greek or bilingually in Greek and Brahmi, a monogram, and symbols often with Hellenistic themes. Among their kings the best-remembered in *India was *Menander(2), whose power extended to the western Ganges valley, but only for a limited period. They were also patrons of Buddhism and of Hindu Bhagavatism. Some, such as Heliodorus, identified with a Vaishnava sect. Rich finds at urban centres such as Begram and Sirkap (Taxila) point to active commerce.