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Cebes  

Christopher Rowe

Cebes of *Thebes (1), like his compatriot *Simmias (1), is a main character in *Plato (1)'s Phaedo; he probably also shared with him long-standing membership of the Socratic circle (see Cri. 45b; Xen. Mem. 1. 2. 49, 3. 11. 17; see socrates). Their having ‘been together with’ *Philolaus while he was in *Thebes (1) (Ph. 61d–e) is poor evidence of Pythagorean affiliations. *Diogenes (6) Laertius reports of him solely that he had three dialogues attributed to him, Pinax, Hebdome, and Phrynichus. An extant dialogue with the title Κέβητος Θηβαίου πίναξ (ed. K. Praechter, 1893) has Cynic/Stoic connections, and probably belongs to the 1st cent. ce. References to Cebes in [Pl.] Letter 13 (363a) and Plutarch, De genio Socratis (?575e, 580e, 590a) reflect his literary role in the Phaedo.

Article

William David Ross and David Potter

Author of a comprehensive philosophical polemic against *Christianity, The True Doctrine, written probably between 175 and 181 (Origen, C. Cels. 8. 69, 71). The work is primarily known through *Origen (1)'s Contra Celsum, which directly quotes selected passages. Celsus wrote from the perspective of a Middle Platonic philosopher, though in one section of his work he also appears to have adopted the criticism levelled against Christianity by a Jew (Origen, C. Cels. 1. 28). The True Doctrine is important evidence for knowledge of Christian doctrine among Gentiles, as well as for the difficulty outsiders had in determining the difference between ‘orthodox’ Christians and *Gnostic fringe groups (Origen, C. Cels. 5. 61 ff.). The importance of Celsus’ book is suggested by the fact that Origen's massive refutation was written in the 240s.Efforts to identify this Celsus with the Celsus who is the addressee of Lucian's Alexander are not convincing: the author of The True Doctrine was a Platonist, while the recipient of the Alexander was evidently an Epicurean.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Chamaeleon, of *Heraclea (3) Pontica (c.350–after 281 bce), Greek *Peripatetic writer; almost no biographical details exist. He wrote works on *satyric drama and comedy, and studies of a number of early poets, including *Homer, *Pindar, and *Aeschylus. These works, which were anecdotal and uncritical, are often cited by *Athenaeus (1): their hallmark was the deduction of biographical data from references in comedy and from the writers’ own works, a technique already visible in the Aristotelian ‘Constitution of Athens’ (: see athēnaiōn politeia. Chamaeleon's philosophical writings, ‘On Drunkenness’, ‘On Pleasure’ (alternatively attributed to *Theophrastus), ‘On the Gods’, and his ‘Speech of Encouragement’ (Προτρεπτικός), also seem to have stood firmly in the Aristotelian tradition.

Article

Gisela Striker

Charmadas (168/7–some time after 107 bce), member of the *Academy, pupil of *Carneades. Mentioned by *Sextus Empiricus (Pyr. 1. 220) as founder of the ‘Fourth Academy’ together with *Philon (3) of Larissa. He taught in the Athenian Ptolemaeum for a while, but later returned to the Academy. Charmadas was famous for his elegant style. He introduced the teaching of rhetoric into the Academy and is said to have had many students.

Article

Julia Annas and Malcolm Schofield

Chrysippus of Soli in *Cilicia (c. 280–207 bce), succeeded *Cleanthes as head of the Stoa in 232 (see stoicism). He came to Athens about 260 and studied both at the sceptical *Academy, where he learned the importance of argument for and against given positions, and with Cleanthes. In adopting Stoicism he reportedly told Cleanthes that he needed only to know the positions, and would then provide the proofs himself. Another saying had it that ‘if there had been no Chrysippus, there would have been no Stoa’. According to *Diogenes Laertius, who appended a list only partially extant, he was author of 705 books. None survives, but we have numerous excerpts in later (though often unfriendly) authors like *Plutarch and *Galen; and it is generally supposed that the standard accounts of Stoicism in *Cicero, *Arius Didymus and Diogenes himself reflect the system primarily as it was shaped by Chrysippus, eclipsing earlier Stoics other than *Zeno (2), whose views he took pains to preserve and explain.

Article

Tiberius Claudius Aristocles of *Pergamum (2nd cent. ce), was a Peripatetic philosopher turned sophist who also held the consulship. As sophist he studied under *Herodes Atticus, taught in Pergamum and performed throughout Italy and Asia Minor. His works included two rhetorical textbooks, letters, and declamations.

Article

Julia Annas and Malcolm Schofield

Student of *Zeno (2) and his successor as head of the Stoa (see stoicism). His religious spirit is distinctive; after the writings of *Chrysippus established a Stoic orthodoxy, this came to seem less central. As well as reports of arguments for the existence of god, we have his Hymn to Zeus, which displays a distinctive use of Heraclitean ideas (see heraclitus(1)) in expounding the Stoic theory of providential rational nature, including an explanation of evil. He evidently worked out Stoic physics in detail; in writing on the nature of the cosmos he stressed the role of *fire. His version of ethics emphasized the physical constitution of virtue, and self-control rather than wisdom (in terms reminiscent of *Antisthenes (1). Epicureans, he said, reduced the virtues to the status of serving-maids, whose function was merely to urge prudence in the pursuit of pleasure. He denied the usefulness of moral rules unless based on an understanding of basic principles, and held that in consoling people it was sufficient to point out that there was nothing morally harmful in their misfortunes.

Article

Academic sceptic (see academy), came from *Carthage and was originally named Hasdrubal. He went to study in Athens, aged 24, and according to *Diogenes (6) Laertius (4. 67) became well versed in *Peripatetic thought and Stoicism, as well as Academic thought. At 28 he became the pupil of *Carneades, head of the New *Academy. From 140/39 he conducted his own school in the Palladium (see gymnasium), but returned in 129/8 with many followers to the Academy, becoming Scholarch c.128.Clitomachus was famously industrious, allegedly writing over 400 books (rolls?), mainly recording Carneades’ arguments. *Cicero, who used his Περὶ ἐποχῆς (‘On withholding assent’) in the Lucullus, reports that Clitomachus insisted, against some other pupils of Carneades, that his teacher had never abandoned the attitude of strict suspension of judgement. Cicero also mentions two other books, dedicated to the Roman senator L.

Article

William David Ross, Dirk Obbink, and Eleni Kechagia-Ovseiko

Pupil and devoted follower of *Epicurus. He countered *Arcesilaus (1) (Plut. Adversus Coloten 1121e, 1124b; Diog. Laert. 9. 44) and the sceptical New Academy with Epicurean materialism and *atomism, and sought to discredit all thinkers whose theories, in his view, raised doubts about the reality of the external world and questioned the reliability of the senses. His targets included *Democritus, Cyrenaics, Arcesilaus and his followers, *Parmenides, *Empedocles (against whom the Epicurean *Hermarchus also wrote), *Socrates, *Melissus, *Plato (1), and *Stilpon. Fragments from two anti-Platonic works are preserved among the papyri of the Epicurean library from *Herculaneum: Against Plato's Lysis (PHerc 208); Against the Euthydemus (PHerc 1032) (both ed. W. Crönert in Kolotes und Menedemos, 1906; new edition in preparation by M. Erler); he is also known to have written a work Against the Republic, from which Proclus (in Platonis Rempublicam commentarii 2.

Article

Ashley Clements

W. E. Gladstone's 19th-cent. philological studies of Greek colour terms led him to conclude that the Greeks suffered from defective vision (1858). More recently, in the wake of Berlin and Kay (1969), ancient colour perception has been a locus for debating cross-cultural universals and cultural relativism.

Ancient concepts of colour were in fact contested and negotiable even amongst ancient theorists. The Greeks could certainly distinguish hues (paceGladstone), and the etymology of the Greek chrōma implies that Greek conceptions of colour were closely related to skin, bodily complexion (chrōs, chroia), and to the surface of the body as an index of what is subjectively felt or lies within. But Greek colour terms do not organize visual experience primarily according to hue as does the modern English lexicon, but, rather, luminosity, texture, contrast, and further properties of the objects or phenomena they qualify.

Article

Crantor of Soli in Cilicia (c. 335–275 bce), philosopher of the early *Academy, and the first Platonic commentator. He studied under Xenocrates (1), and cohabited with *Arcesilaus (1), whom he had won over to the Academy from the Peripatos. His influential commentary on Plato's Timaeus sided with those who denied a literal creation of the world. It included a detailed mathematical interpretation of the harmonic intervals constituting the world soul. His ethical writings were much admired. One famous passage depicted a contest between the various Goods, with Virtue the eventual winner. His On grief (Cicero's model for his own Consolatio) opposed the Cynic-inspired ideal of eradicating this emotion (see consolation). See also atlantis.

Article

Crates (2), of *Thebes (1) (c.368/365–288/285 bce), *Cynic philosopher and poet. Moving to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of *Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he maintained Diogenes’ philosophy is disputed. He claimed to be ‘a citizen of Diogenes’ and espoused a similar cosmopolitanism; notoriously enacted Diogenes’ prescriptions regarding free and public sex in his relations with Hipparchia, with whom he shared a Cynic way of life; and often expressed ethical sentiments as extreme and intolerant as Diogenes'. But he did not insist on the complete renunciation of wealth or that everybody should become a Cynic, and he conceded a certain legitimacy to existing occupations; and the deployment of his considerable charm and kindliness in proclaiming his message, comforting the afflicted, and reconciling enemies, won him the titles of ‘door-opener’ and ‘good spirit’ and a reputation for humanity which endured throughout antiquity. Granted their obvious differences in personality and missionary approach, Crates seems himself to have followed Diogenes rigorously, while (sometimes) allowing greater latitude to others. This partial moral relativism makes him the link between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ Cynicism (there are clear Cratetean elements in *Lucian's Demon.

Article

William David Ross

A younger contemporary of *Socrates. He pressed the doctrine of *Heraclitus (1) to an extreme point, denying to things even the slightest fixity of nature. According to *Aristotle he was *Plato (1)'s first master in philosophy, and Plato drew the conclusion that since fixity does not exist in the sensible world there must be a non-sensible world to account for the possibility of knowledge. Plato in his Cratylus makes Cratylus maintain that falsehood is impossible and that all words in all languages are naturally appropriate to the meanings with which they are used, and exhibits him as uncritically accepting Socrates’ glib etymologies.

Article

Crito (1), a wealthy and devoted friend of *Socrates, who in *Plato (1)'s Apology offers to stand surety for him, and in the Crito plans for Socrates’ escape from prison. Seventeen dialogues are ascribed to him (Diog. Laert. 2. 121).

Article

Crito (3), of *Argos (1), a *Neopythagorean philosopher, of whose On Wisdom Stobaeus (2, 157–8) quotes fifteen lines of Doric prose, about the mind as created by God so as to enable man to contemplate God.

Article

Robert Sharples

Critolaus, of *Phaselis, head of the *Peripatetic school. His dates are unknown, but he was probably an old man when he took part, with *Carneades the Academic (see academy) and *Diogenes (3) the Stoic (see stoicism), in the philosophers’ delegation to Rome in 156/5 bce. His headship of the school marks a renewal of its scientific and philosophical activities. The fragments of his writings show some acquaintance with Aristotelian doctrines, though much of it may be second-hand. He defended the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world against the Stoic periodic conflagration, and taught that the soul was made of the fifth element, i.e. the heavenly aether. In ethics he held the highest good to be a composite of the goods of the soul, those of the body, and external goods, while emphasizing the far greater importance of the first. His criticisms of the Stoic distinction between ‘passions’ (πάθη) and ‘good feelings’ (εὐπάθειαι) reflect a general opposition to the monistic Stoic psychology.

Article

J. L. Moles

Cynics (‘the doggish’), term used of *Diogenes (2) ‘the dog’ (by-word for shamelessness) and his followers. The genesis, status, significance, and influence of Cynicism were already anciently controversial. Interpretative problems arise from Cynic behaviour and sayings, from the loss of nearly all Cynic writings (admittedly less important than in the case of other philosophies), and from diverse distortions in the tradition (invention of sayings and anecdotes; artificial integration of Cynicism into a formal philosophical succession from Socrates to the Stoics; bowdlerization; polemical misrepresentation).

Cynicism was less a school than a way of life grounded in an extreme primitivist interpretation of the principle ‘live according to nature’. Diogenes having discovered the truth, there was relatively little diversity or development within Cynicism, though ‘hard’ Cynics (adherents of the original prescription, found at all periods) can be distinguished from ‘soft’ (who compromised varyingly with existing social and political institutions), practical Cynicism from literary, and Cynics (in whatever sense) from the Cynic-influenced.

Article

C. C. W. Taylor

A school of philosophers reputedly founded by *Aristippus, influential in the later 4th and early 3rd cent. bce. Its best-known members were Theodorus, *Hegesias (1), and *Anniceris. Its main tenets were that sense-impressions are the only things which are knowable, and that the sensory pleasure of the present moment is the supreme good. The claim of pleasure to be the supreme good was supported by the argument that all living things pursue pleasure and shun pain, and bodily pleasure was characterized as a smooth motion of the flesh. The predominance of the pleasure of the moment was supported by the sceptical epistemology implied by the claim that only sense-impressions are knowable; since both past and future lie beyond the scope of present impressions, the wise agent will live only in and for the present. These doctrines may have had some influence on Epicureanism, partly by way of reaction.

Article

Damon went bail for Phintias (not Pythias), condemned by a *Dionysius ((1) or *(2)); saved by Phintias' last-minute return. One of a series of ‘friendship under *tyranny’ stories: cf. Harmodius and *Aristogiton, Chariton and Melanippus.

Article

Epicurean pupil of Protarchus of Bargylia and younger contemporary of Philodemus' teacher *Zeno (5) of Sidon. He refuted Carneades' attack on the possibility of proof, and expounded Epicurus' epiphenomenal doctrine of time as an ‘accident of accidents’. *Aëtius (1) (1. 18. 3 p. 316, 4 Diels) includes him, along with *Leucippus (3), *Democritus, and *Metrodorus (2), in a list of those who think that atoms (see atomism) are infinite in number and that void is infinite in extent. Philodemus in On Signs records that he lectured on inference from similarities. Several of his works are preserved in the Epicurean library from *Herculaneum, together with those of Philodemus, from whom he differs markedly in style (being more taut and concise), including treatises in multiple books on poetics, on gods, and on the philology and textual criticism of Epicurean texts. He was willing to argue that the school's philosophical shortcomings were sometimes due to faulty textual transmission.