1-20 of 33 Results  for:

  • Greek History and Historiography x
Clear all

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Achaeus (3) (d. 213 BCE), viceroy for *Antiochus (3) III of Seleucid Asia Minor and his kinsman (maternal uncle), probably the grandson of the Seleucid official Achaeus the Elder. In 223/2 he recovered Seleucid possessions in Anatolia from *Pergamum; exploiting Antiochus' involvement in the east (Molon's revolt and war against *Ptolemy (1) IV), he proclaimed himself king (220). His soldiers refused to fight Antiochus, but he maintained power until the king was free to quell his rebellion. After a two-year siege in Sardis, he was captured and duly executed as a traitor.

Article

What makes Alexander Great? His story has captured the imagination of authors, artists, philosophers, and politicians across more than two millennia. He has provided a point of convergence for religious and spiritual thinkers, he has been co-opted as a champion for gender and sexual openness, he represents a paradigm for would-be charismatic dictators (and their opponents), he gives us scientific imperialism and justification for conquistadorial dreaming, and he exemplifies the risks of cultural appropriation. To understand why Alexander resonates so widely across so many different fields of study, interest groups, and media, is an exercise in reception. This Alexander who has captured the imagination is triumphantly equivocal and it is in the plurality of traditions through which this complexity is expressed that his enduring “greatness” lies. The imaginary quality of Alexander is unsurprising because more profoundly than for any comparable individual from classical antiquity, his history is a product of reception from the start: every encounter with Alexander the Great is part of a conversation that depends substantially on accounts and narrative evidence from long after his death, and at the least at one remove from the historians who first and contemporaneously chronicled his life and achievements.

Article

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Amélie Kuhrt

Antioch (1), in *Syria, one of the Seleucid royal capitals, on the left bank of the *Orontes, some 24 km. (15 mi.) from the sea, was founded in 300 bce by *Seleucus (1) I, in a favourable position between his Anatolian and eastern possessions, on the edge of a large and fertile plain. *Seleuceia (2), at the mouth of the Orontes, became its harbour. The king transferred thither the 5,300 Athenian and Macedonian settlers whom *Antigonus (1) I had planted at Antigoneia nearby in 307. His successors enlarged the city. Nothing of Seleucid Antioch survives. It was laid out on a grid plan (see urbanism) and contained a large Aramaic-speaking, as well as a Jewish, community, whose privileges were said to go back to Seleucus I. After an interlude of Armenian rule (83–66 bce) it was annexed by *Pompey (64 bce) and became the capital of the province of Syria; it was made an autonomous city by Caesar (47 bce).

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (3) III Megas (the Great (c. 242–187 BCE), second son of *Seleucus (2) II, king of the *Seleucid empire (222–187). After the assassination of his elder brother, *Seleucus (3) III, who was childless, he was called from *Babylon to *Antioch to be king. From the outset he faced many problems within the empire: in the east, a rebellion in *Media led by the satrap Molon (222), with the support of the satrap of Persis, Alexander (brother of Molon); Molon invaded Babylonia, seized the royal capital, *Seleuceia (1) on Tigris, and took the title ‘king’. In the west, *Achaeus (3), viceroy of Seleucid Asia Minor, was in revolt and in control of the royal capital of *Sardis. The Ptolemies still retained control of *Seleuceia (2) -Pieria in north Syria.Within the next 25 years, Antiochus put down the revolt of Molon (220) (Polyb.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (1) I Soter (Saviour (c. 324–261 bce), king of the Seleucid empire (281–261) eldest son of *Seleucus (1) I and the Bactrian *Apame, co-regent with Seleucus I (294–281); given responsibility for the ‘Upper Satrapies’, when he married Seleucus' second wife, *Stratonice, daughter of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes. This apparent division of royal power (coins from the eastern satrapies, e.g. *Bactria, were still minted under the names of both Seleucus and Antiochus, and in inscriptions Seleucus' name took precedence) perhaps indicates both Seleucus' perception of the importance of the eastern part of the empire and of the need for royal authority there, and also of Antiochus' potential acceptability there as a half-Iranian king.Antiochus was, with Seleucus I and *Antiochus (3) III, one of the most dynamic and successful of the Seleucid kings and played a crucial part in consolidating the empire, both territorially and institutionally. His huge colonizing and consolidating activity through the Seleucid empire, apart from many city foundations in Anatolia, include in the east, the oasis city of *Antioch (3) (Strabo 11.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (2) II Theos (God) (286–246 bce), king of the *Seleucid empire (261–246), second son of *Antiochus (1) I and *Stratonice, co-regent with his father since 268. Married *Laodice (2) 267, who bore him *Seleucus (2) (II) and *Antiochus (8) Hierax. In the ‘Second Syrian War’ (260–253) he tried to gain southern Syria, Palestine, and Phoenicia from *Ptolemy (1) II unsuccessfully, but maintained Antiochus I's possessions in Asia Minor, though facing the independent development of the kingdom of *Pergamum. Peace was consolidated by his marriage to *Berenice (2), daughter of Ptolemy II (253), which led to war with Egypt at the accession of Seleucus II. Antiochus granted estates to Laodikce in Asia Minor (I Didyma II 492) and Babylonia (‘Lehmann Text’), which benefited cities.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (7) VII Sidetes ( = from *Side) (c. 159–129 bce), last great king of the Seleucid empire (138-129) second son of *Demetrius (10) I, succeeded his brother *Demetrius (11) II, who had become a prisoner in Parthia (138). He quickly defeated and killed the pretender Tryphon in *Antioch (1) (138), reconquered Palestine (135–134) and recovered *Babylonia from Parthia (130), was welcomed by the Greeks, but defeated and killed in 129 in Media. Babylonia was lost to the *Seleucids for good.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (6) VI Epiphanes Dionysus, rival king of the Seleucid empire (145/4–141/0 bce), infant, son of *Alexander (10) Balas. He was put forward by the general Diodotus (later called Tryphon) against *Demetrius (11) II and conquered Antioch. Tryphon soon deposed and killed him (141/0), and reigned afterwards as king until 138, when he was defeated by *Antiochus (7) VII.

Article

Guy Thompson Griffith, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Antiochus (8) Hierax (c. 263–226 bce), second son of *Antiochus (2) II and *Laodice (2), brother of *Seleucus (2) II, became independent ruler of Seleucid Anatolia when his brother fought the ‘Third Syrian War’ (246–241). He defeated Seleucus' attempt to recover Anatolia (‘War of the Brothers,’ c.239–?), allying himself with traditional enemies of the Seleucid dynasty, Pontus, Bithynia, and Galatians, and marrying a Bithynian princess, daughter of Ziaelas and sister of *Prusias (1) I. The Galatian alliance, however, embroiled him with the rising power of *Attalus I of Pergamum, who drove him from Asia Minor (230–228). After an unsuccessful attempt to raise Syria and the east against Seleucus, he became an exile (227) and was murdered in Thrace.

Article

R. M. Errington

Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through active self-defence policies, successfully fighting against some of the *Galatians before c.230 (to whom he had first refused customary payments) and against *Antiochus (8) Hierax before 227, a success which temporarily brought all Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus into his sphere of influence. Most of this he lost again to *Seleucus (3) III and *Achaeus (3) from 223–212, though an agreement with *Antiochus (3) III against Achaeus (216) seems to have recognized Attalus' rights to Mysia and Aeolis, where Pergamene rule was re-established or consolidated. Friendly contacts with cities in Ionia and Hellespontine Phrygia were established, though hostility to the Bithynian kingdom was permanent. In Pergamum itself victories were celebrated by Attalus' taking the title ‘*Soter’ (‘Saviour’) and with monuments of spectacular expense and artistic quality (e.

Article

R. M. Errington

Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against *Antiochus (3) III, the *Galatians, *Prusias (1) I, and Pharnaces I, and as diplomat, especially in Rome, where after 167 some senators favoured him against Eumenes. As king—he bore the title already in Eumenes' lifetime—he married Eumenes' widow Stratonice and adopted her son Attalus. He recognized Roman paramountcy and acted accordingly: he restored *Ariarathes V to Cappadocia, supported *Alexander (10) Balas against *Demetrius (10) I in Syria (153–150), *Nicomedes II of Bithynia against *Prusias (2) II (149), whom with Roman help he had recently defeated, and sent troops against *Andriscus (148) and to *Corinth (146). He founded *Philadelphia (2) in Lydia and *Attaleia (Antalya) in Pamphylia, continued Eumenes' building programme at Pergamum and the tradition of magnificent gifts to Greek cities and shrines (e.

Article

R. M. Errington

Attalus III (c. 170–133 bce), son of *Eumenes (2) II, last king of Pergamum (138–133), who bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Called ‘Philometor’ (‘Mother-lover’) because of his close relationship to Stratonice, he was allegedly unpopular and had a reputation for being brutal and uninterested in public affairs, though given early experience by *Attalus II, devoting himself rather to scientific study, especially botany and pharmacology.

Article

Joyce Reynolds and Dorothy J. Thompson

The name of several Ptolemaic dynastic foundations. Among the best known are:(a) Berenice (mod. Benghazi), the westernmost Cyrenaican city, founded in the mid-3rd cent. bce (exact date and circumstances disputed) after the abandonment of Euhesperides (whose harbour had silted up) and named for *Berenice (3) II who gave a city-wall. It was the starting-point of M. *Porcius Cato (2)'s march across the Syrtica to Thapsa and birthplace of Andronicus, opponent of *Synesius. Inscriptions highlight pirate raids in the 1st cent. bce and its self-governing Jewish community; excavations reveal the development of a suburb in considerable detail. See pentapolis.Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 3 (1899), 282, no. 8.J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 1 (1977).J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 2 (1979).J. A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi 3 (1985).A. Laronde, Cyrène et la Libye hellénistique (1987), 382 f.

Article

Berenice (1) I, first mistress and then wife of *Ptolemy (1) I Soter, came to Egypt with her aunt Eurydice whom she supplanted as queen. By her first marriage (to Philippus, a Macedonian), she was mother to Magas, king of Cyrene and Antigone, wife of *Pyrrhus of Epirus. Her later children were *Arsinoë II, *Ptolemy (1) II, and Philotera.

Article

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Berenice (2), ‘the Syrian’, daughter of *Ptolemy (1) II and *Arsinoë I (b. c.280 bce), was Ptolemy III's sister. *Antiochus (2) II married her after the ‘Second Syrian War’ (252). At Antiochus' death (246), *Laodice (2), his divorced first wife, murdered Berenice and her son by Antiochus before Ptolemy III could intervene.

Article

Berenice (3) II, daughter of Magas of Cyrene and Apama II, was born c.273 bce. Following the murder that she initiated of her mother's candidate Demetrius, her marriage in 246 to *Ptolemy (1) III Euergetes returned *Cyrene to Ptolemaic control. She survived into the reign of her son *Ptolemy (1) IV, falling a victim to palace intrigues in 221.

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Daughter of *Antiochus (3) III and *Laodice (3) and wife (from 193) of *Ptolemy (1) V Epiphanes. On Epiphanes’ death in 180 bce she acted as regent for her elder son *Ptolemy (1) VI, and on her death four years later, he took the title Philometor (‘Mother-loving’).

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Cleopatra II (c. 185–116 BCE), daughter of *Cleopatra I and *Ptolemy (1) V and both sister and wife of first *Ptolemy (1) VI Philometor (from 175) and then (from 145) his successor (and brother) *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II. Her children (by Philometor) were Ptolemy Eupator, *Ptolemy (1) VII Neos Philopator, *Cleopatra III and Cleopatra Thea, and (by Euergetes) Ptolemy Memphites. Her long life was marked by dynastic strife in which she looked to the population of *Alexandria (1) for support. Supplanted in Euergetes’ affection by her daughter, Cleopatra III, in 132–130 she engaged in a civil war against her husband-brother and his new wife. Euergetes fled to Cyprus with Cleopatra III and although he was back in control from 130 mother and daughter only reached an uneasy reconciliation in 124. The reconciliation of Euergetes and his two wives, Cleopatra mother and daughter, was marked by an amnesty decree in 118 (PTeb.

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

Cleopatra III, daughter of *Ptolemy (1) VI and *Cleopatra II, was seduced and married by *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II in 140/139 bce. She spent much of her life in conflict with her mother, whom she followed as her uncle's wife. Following Euergetes’ death (in 116) she ruled with first her elder (*Ptolemy (1) IX Soter II) and then (from 107) her younger son (*Ptolemy (1) X Alexander I). The drama of this final stage of her career, epitomized in 105/bce (PColon. 2. 81) when she served instead of the king as priest in the royal cult, is variously reported; all agree that different sons were favoured successively and that Cleopatra met a violent end (in 101 bce). New appointments in the dynastic cult (see ruler-cult) reflect the troubled times; in 115 three new priestesses joined the cult of this powerful queen.

Article

Pierre Briant

*Plutarch, in the eulogy of his hero *Alexander (3) the Great (De Alex. fort.), made the foundation of cities the linchpin of the achievement of Alexander, who wished to spread Greek civilization throughout his realm. Although we must be mindful of the predictable ideology which has structured Plutarch's argument, as well as distrustful of the number of cities attributed to the conqueror (70!), it is nevertheless true that Alexander's conquest opened the countries of the middle east to Greek immigration. The Greeks, however, could only imagine life in cities with Greek-style houses, streets, public buildings, civic institutions, and a rural territory where the colonists could hold plots of land (klēroi; see cleruchy). Begun by Alexander, usually as military colonies rather than cities proper (*Alexandria (1) in Egypt is an exception), this policy was followed by his successors and developed further by the *Seleucids.