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ophthalmology  

Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ophthalmology was greatly advanced by the Greeks. Twenty operations were devised; until the beginning of the 18th cent. only four were added. The treatment of more than thirty *diseases was not ... More

optics  

Wilbur R. Knorr and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Optics, in the modern sense (since Johannes Kepler in the 17th cent.) conceived as the science of light, was viewed among the ancients primarily as the theory of vision. The ancient atomists (e.g. ... More

Oribasius, Greek medical writer, c. 320–c. 400 CE  

Robert Browning and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Born in Pergamum, he studied medicine at *Alexandria(1) under *Zeno(2) of Cyprus, and practised in Asia Minor. He became the personal physician of *Julian, who took him to Gaul (355). Closely ... More

Pappus, of Alexandria (1), mathematician, fl. 320 CE  

G. J. Toomer and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The most important of his surviving works is Συναγωγή (Collection), a compilation (probably made after his death) in eight books of eight originally separate treatises on different parts of the ... More

pastoralism, Greek  

Stephen Hodkinson

Although animals were ubiquitous throughout the Greek countryside, animal husbandry has until recently received little systematic attention; hence current interpretations are frequently embryonic. ... More

pastoralism, Roman  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pastoralism, whether good, bad, or indifferent, provided the most lucrative returns, according to *Cato (Censorius) (Cicero, Off. 2. 89; Columella, Rust. 6 praef. 4–5; Plin.HN 8. 29–30). Thus ... More

pathology  

V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
As defined in medical handbooks from at least 150 ce onwards, pathology was that part of medicine specifically concerned with the causes of disease. As such it went beyond the observation and ... More

Paul, of Aegina, physician  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Paul of *Aegina, physician, died after 642 ce in *Alexandria (1). Arabic texts ascribe to Paul works on *gynaecology, toxicology, and medical practice and procedures, but extant only is ... More

Perseus (3), mathematician, 2nd cent. BCE  

Alexander Souter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

*Proclus describes him as the discoverer of the sections of the σπεῖρα (tore or anchor-ring).

pharmacology  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
From earliest times, drugs formed an important part of *medicine, and *Homer has the first record of good drugs and bad drugs (poisons). Folklore incorporated many data on toxic substances, and in ... More

Philinus (1), of Cos, founder of the Empiricist school of medicine, fl. c. 240 BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philinus (1) of Co (fl. c. 240 BCE), an apostate pupil of *Herophilus. According to most ancient sources—A. *Cornelius Celsus (Med. prooem. 10) being the only significant exception—he was the founder ... More

Philippus (1), of Opus, astronomer, fl. c. 350 BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philippus was thought by some (Diog. Laert. 3. 37) to have transcribed the Laws of his teacher *Plato (1) and to have written the Epinomis. He is probably the Philippus who composed an ... More

Philistion, of Locri Epizephyrii, physician  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physician and perhaps a contemporary of *Plato (1) (c.427–347 bce), provides important evidence for early medical theory outside the Hippocratic corpus (see hippocrates(2)). According to *Callimachus ... More

Philolaus, of Croton or Tarentum, c. 470–390 BCE  

Carl Huffman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philolaus wrote one book which was probably the first by a Pythagorean (see pythagoras(1)). He was a contemporary of *Socrates and is mentioned in *Plato (1)'s Phaedo (61 d6) as arguing ... More

Philon (2), of Byzantium, mechanician, fl. c. 200 BCE  

G. J. Toomer and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philon wrote a mechanical Syntaxis in nine (?) books, of which survive: book 4, βελοποιικά, on catapults (see artillery); book 5, πνευματικά (in Arabic translation, itself partially ... More

Philonides (2), Epicurean philosopher  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philonides (2), Epicurean philosopher (see epicurus), mathematician and statesman (fl. 200–160 bce). A fragmentary biography of him is preserved in a Herculaneum papyrus, which is ... More

Philumenus, of Alexandria (1)  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Member of the eclectic school of medicine, c.ce 180. An excerpt from his work De Venenatis Animalibus (on poisonous animals), the basis of the thirteenth book of *Aelian, has been edited by M. ... More

physics  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Physics today involves the investigation of the nature and behaviour of matter and energy, and it is often thus distinguished from chemistry and biology. The same term, derived from the ... More

physiognomy  

M. Michela Sassi

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physiognomy, the art of observing and making inferences from physical features of the body, was practised from c.1,500 bce (when it is mentioned in Mesopotamian handbooks on divination). A focus on ... More

Physiologus, 'the Natural Scientist'  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physiologus (‘the Natural Scientist’), an exposition of the marvellous properties of some 50 animals, plants, and stones, with a Christian interpretation of each (e.g. the pelican, which ... More

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