You are looking at  201-220 of 266 articles  for:

  • Science, Technology, and Medicine x
Clear All

View:

plague  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Plague (λοιμός Lat. pestis), a term confusingly employed by ancient historians to designate epidemics of infectious *diseases. Epidemics in antiquity were not necessarily caused by the disease now ... More

Pliny (1) the Elder, 23/24–79 CE  

Nicholas Purcell

Gaius Plinius Secundus, prominent Roman equestrian, from Novum *Comum in Gallia Cisalpina (see gaul (cisalpine)), commander of the fleet at *Misenum, and uncle of *Pliny (2) the Younger, best known ... More

ploughing, Roman  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘What is good cultivation? Good ploughing.’ (Cato, Agr. 61. 1; see porcius cato(1), m., Appendix). While ploughing was of paramount importance for the intensive *villa agriculture described by the ... More

pneuma  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pneuma (πνεῦμα, Lat. spiritus) is connected etymologically with πνέω, breathe or blow, and has a basic meaning of ‘air in motion’, or ‘breath’ as something necessary to life. In Greek tragedy it is ... More

pneumatics  

Sylvia Berryman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A branch of the ancient Greek mechanical art, roughly concerned with the movement of fluids and the ways that its properties could be used to produce effects, whether lifting water, holding it ... More

Pneumatists  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Term used in antiquity to describe a group of doctors influenced by Stoic *physics (see stoicism), but also continuing an important Hippocratic tradition (see hippocrates(2)) which underlined the ... More

Polybus (3), Greek Hippocratic physician and author  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hippocratic physician, and according to one tradition the son-in-law of *Hippocrates (2) himself. Attempts have been made to assign authorship of various Hippocratic treatises to him (eg. ... More

polychromy, architectural, Greek and Roman  

Stephan Zink

The polychromy of Greek and Etrusco-Roman architecture comprises the chromatic effects and surface treatments of exterior façades and roofs, as well as interior floors, walls, and ... More

Pompeius Trogus  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Trogus Pompeius, a Romanized Vocontian from Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), author of zoological, and perhaps botanical works, now lost, and the Philippic Histories (Historiae ... More

Porphyry, music theory  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Like many philosophers and Christian fathers, Porphyry was suspicious of real *music but not of musical theory. The introduction to his incomplete Commentary on Ptolemy's Harmonics ... More

pottery, scientific analysis of  

David William John Gill

Petrographical and chemical analysis are the two main ways to characterize pottery. The former treats the pottery as a geological sediment which has been used for a particular purpose. ... More

Praxagoras  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Praxagoras of Cos, a physician of the second half of the 4th cent. bce. He is known only through the testimony of others, but it seems likely that he was a teacher of the great anatomist *Herophilus ... More

Ptolemaïs, of Cyrene, musicologist  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ptolemaïs of *Cyrene (perhaps early 1st cent. ce), antiquity's only known woman musicologist (see music), wrote an ‘introductory treatise’, Pythagorean Elements of Music, in question-and-answer form ... More

Ptolemy (4), Harmonics  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ptolemy's Harmonics is outstanding in its field, and significant in the history of scientific thought for its sophisticated blend of rationalist and empiricist methodology. While rejecting ... More

Ptolemy (4), mathematical writer  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ptolemy wrote at *Alexandria (1), between 146 ce and c.170, definitive works in many of the mathematical sciences (see mathematics), including *astronomy and *geography. Ptolemy's earliest work, the ... More

Pythagoras (1), Pythagoreanism  

Charles H. Kahn and Fritz Graf

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, one of the most mysterious and influential figures in Greek intellectual history, was born in *Samos in the mid-6th cent. bce and migrated to *Croton in ... More

quarries  

Hazel Dodge

Stone was an important material in both the Greek and Roman periods, not only for building, but also for decoration, sculpture, and vases. Whatever the stone, its geology defines the quarrying ... More

Quintus  

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Quintus, Hippocratic (see hippocrates (2)), anatomist and physician of the eclectic school in Rome, in the age of *Hadrian (117–38 ce), and pupil of *Marinus. He founded an important ... More

race  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Greeks and Romans were avid observers in art and text of departures among foreigners (allophyloi, alienigeni) from their own somatic norms. But it is difficult to discern any lasting ascription of ... More

Ravenna Cosmographer (Anonymus Ravennas)  

Natalia Lozovsky

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Ravenna Cosmographer is an anonymous author of a Latin compilation commonly dated to the late 600s to early 700s. The Cosmographer describes the inhabited world, beginning with some ... More

View: