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piracy  

Philip de Souza

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Piracy can be defined as armed robbery involving the use of ships. The greater mobility which the sea provides is a major factor in differentiating between piracy and *brigandage, although the Greek ... More

Plautius, Roman lawyer  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman lawyer of the later 1st cent. ce, known only through excerpts in Justinian's Digest (see justinian's codification) from commentaries on his work by L. *Neratius Priscus, *Javolenus ... More

plebiscitum  

Eastland Stuart Staveley and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Plebiscitum, as opposed to *lex(1), was in theory a resolution carried by any Roman assembly in which no patrician cast his vote. In practice, except perhaps on a few occasions in the late republic, ... More

plebs  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Plebs, the name given to the mass of Roman citizens, as distinct from the privileged patricians, perhaps related to the Greek term for the masses, plethos. A modern hypothesis that the plebs was ... More

police  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In any discussion of police it is necessary to distinguish between the function of policing, that is, maintaining public order and enforcing the law, and the existence of a specialized agency of ... More

politics, Roman  

Oswyn Murray

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman society had a strong gentilicial framework, and throughout the republic politics was largely based on the clientela (see cliens) or kinship group; the late republic saw also the growth of ... More

Pomponius, Sextus, Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. CE  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman lawyer who wrote under *Hadrian, *Antoninus Pius, and Marcus *Aurelius. A teacher and prolific writer, the author of over 300 books (libri), he seems not to have given responsa (consultative ... More

populus  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Populus, a collective term for the Roman citizen body. The Roman People (populus Romanus) comprised the entire community of adult male citizens, but excluded women and children, as well as slaves and ... More

possession, legal  

Barry Nicholas and Alan Rodger

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Classical Roman law distinguished ownership and possession. While *ownership is the right to a thing, irrespective of whether the owner has any control or enjoyment of it, possession is, essentially, ... More

postliminium  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
A Roman citizen captured by the enemy was regarded by Roman law as a slave (see booty; slavery), except that his rights were not extinguished but in suspense. By virtue of the right of postliminium ... More

praefectura  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Praefectura was the term for an assize-centre in Roman territory. When, for example, *Capua became a *municipium, praefecti (see praefectus) delegated by the *praetorurbanus were sent there from time ... More

praefectus  

Henry Michael Denne Parker, George Ronald Watson, and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Praefectus means ‘placed in charge’ and describes a great variety of men set in authority—officers in the army and navy, major imperial officials, judicial officers delegated by the praetor (see ... More

praefectus praetorio  

Brian Campbell and John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
*Augustus first appointed praetorian prefects (see praefectus) to command the *praetorians in 2 bce; there were usually two, of equestrian rank (see equites, Imperial period). He recognized the ... More

praerogativa  

Eastland Stuart Staveley and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Praerogativa was the *centuria in the *comitia centuriata of the Roman people which had the right of voting first. In early times the eighteen centuriae of the ... More

praetor  

T. Corey Brennan and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Praetor’ (from prae-ire, ‘to precede’, i.e. in battle) was originally the title borne by the two republican magistrates who were chosen annually to serve as eponymous heads of state. In 367 bce the ... More

princeps senatus  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The senator whose name was entered first on the *senate list compiled by the censors (see censor). Once selected, he maintained his position for life and longevity conferred increased influence. The ... More

prison  

Adolf Berger and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman criminal law, like that of Athens, did not in general use public imprisonment of free persons as a form of punishment, although under the republic some criminals suffered private imprisonment ... More

pro consule, pro praetore  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pro consule, pro praetore, a magistrate (see magistracy, roman) in place of a *consul or *praetor respectively, operating outside Rome and outside the regular annual magistracy.The first instance is ... More

Proculus, Sempronius (?), Roman lawyer  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Sempronius (?) Proculus, Roman lawyer of the mid-1st cent. ce, perhaps from Spain, who gave his name to the Proculian school, which emphasized principle and consistency, in contrast with ... More

procurator  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Signified an agent or, in legal proceedings, representative, and under the Principate came to be the distinctive term for the employees of the emperor in civil administration. They might be freedmen ... More

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