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proletarii  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Proletarii, as opposed to assidui, were the citizens of Rome too poor to contribute anything to the state except their children (proles). They seem to have been equated with the capite censi as ... More

provocatio  

Eastland Stuart Staveley and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Provocatio was an appeal made to the Roman people against the action of a magistrate (see magistracy, roman), whether the latter was employing summary coercion (*coercitio) on the appellant or ... More

punishment, Greek and Roman practice  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
According to *Cicero (Ad Brut. 23. 3), it was a dictum of *Solon's that a community was held together by rewards and penalties, and the ascription seems plausible, in so far as Archaic Greek ... More

quaestiones  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Quaestiones, Roman tribunals of inquiry into crimes, later standing courts. In the first three centuries of the Roman republic alleged crimes against the state, if too serious for summary action by a ... More

quaestor  

Ernst Badian and Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quaestores parricidii (see parricidium) are said to have been appointed by the kings. Under the republic there were two, who prosecuted some capital cases before the people. They fade from our record ... More

quasi delict  

Maria Floriana Cursi

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The expression quasi delict cannot be found in Roman legal sources. It has been created on the basis of a title of the JustinianInstitutes (I. 4.5), dealing with “the obligations which ... More

recuperatores  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Recuperatores were jurymen (usually three or five) who acted in the second stage of Roman civil proceedings in place of the single iudex. They may have been first established by ... More

relegation  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The relationship between this and deportatio, within the generic category of exile (exsilium; see exile, Roman), is not altogether clear, but relegatio covers milder forms of exile. It might be ... More

repetundae  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Repetundae (pecuniae), (money) to be recovered. The quaestio de repetundis (see quaestiones) was a court established to secure compensation for the illegal acquisition of money or property by Romans ... More

restitution  

R. Zimmermann

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
‘It is by nature fair that nobody should enrich himself at the expense of another’: this is, in the words of Sex. *Pomponius (Dig. 12. 6. 14; cf. also Dig. 50. 17. 206), the general proposition ... More

Sabiniani and Proculiani  

Tessa Leesen

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The Sabiniani (also known as Cassiani) and Proculiani are two law schools which existed in Rome in the 1st century ce and beginning of the 2nd century. Nearly all the prominent jurists of that time ... More

sacramentum (legal)  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Sacramentum signified in the oldest Roman civil proceeding (legis actio sacramento) the sum of money deposited as a stake by both litigants in the stage before the magistrate (in iure). The opposite ... More

Saepta Iulia  

Donald Emrys Strong and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The voting enclosure for the *comitia tributa, between the Pantheon and the temple of Isis in the *Campus Martius; it was planned and possibly begun by C. *Iulius Caesar (2) ... More

salarium  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Salarium is a term used in the imperial period to denote regular payments to officials. *Augustus instituted the making of regular payments to senatorial and equestrian officials in the provinces ... More

sale, Roman  

R. Zimmermann

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Sale was by far the most important of the Roman consensual *contracts. The parties merely had to agree on the object to be sold and on a price. The handing over of an arrha (earnest) was not required ... More

security  

R. Zimmermann

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Security in Roman law was given to the creditor in the form either of rights over the property of the debtor (real security, mortgage) or of a surety (personal security). By the earliest real ... More

sella curulis  

Piero Treves and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Sella curulis ('curule chair') was an ivory folding seat, without back or arms, used by the higher Roman magistrates (hence the title ‘curule’ magistrates; see magistracy, ... More

Sempronius Gracchus (1), Tiberius, Roman consul, 214 and 213 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (1), son of a consul of 238 bce, as curule aedile (216) was made magister equitum after *Cannae and at once consul (215). With an army including slaves he relieved *Cumae ... More

Sempronius Gracchus (2), Tiberius, Roman censor, 169 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (2), nephew of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (1), served under L. *Cornelius Scipio Asiagenes in 190 bce, and as tribune 187 or 184 supported Scipio in his trial. (The ... More

Sempronius Gracchus, Tiberius (3), Roman tribune, 133 BCE  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, son of (2) and of *Cornelia, served at Carthage under his cousin P. *Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, who married his sister. As quaestor in Spain (137 bce), he used his ... More

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