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surgery  

Charles Joseph Singer and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
bc In the Homeric poems (see homer) references to surgery are found mainly in the Iliad and concerned with the treatment of wounds. The wound is cleaned; blood squeezed or sucked out; edges united by ... More

technology  

Kevin Greene

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Modern definitions of technology focus upon the mechanical arts or applied sciences, while studies of invention and innovation range from industrial research and development laboratories to business ... More

Teucer (4), of Babylon, astrologer  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Teucer (4) of Babylon (probably the Babylon in Egypt), astrologer, is conjectured to belong to the 1st cent. ce. He expounded the traditional astrology of Egypt and united with it oriental and Greek ... More

Theaetetus, of Athens, geometer, c. 415–369 BCE  

Wilbur R. Knorr and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theaetetus (c. 415–369 bce) of Athens, geometer, initiated the special definitions and theory of irrational lines fundamental for book 10 of Euclid's Elements (cf. Eudemus, cited by Pappus, ed. ... More

Themison  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Themison of *Laodicea (probably Lycus), a pupil of *Asclepiades(3) of Bithynia, probably lived towards the end of the 1st cent. bce and spent at least part of his working life in Rome. ... More

Theodorus (2), of Cyrene, geometer, fl. late 5th cent. BCE  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theodorus (2) (fl. late 5th cent. bce) of *Cyrene, geometer, portrayed in *Plato(1)'s Theaetetus as a former disciple of *Protagoras, an associate of *Socrates, and a teacher of *Theaetetus. Plato ... More

Theodosius (4), of Bithynia, astronomer and mathematician  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theodosius (4) of Bithynia, astronomer and mathematician (fl. c.100 bce), wrote three treatises on elementary ‘spherics’: Σφαιρικά, in three books, dealing with great and small circles on the sphere; ... More

Theon (4), of Alexandria, mathematical commentator  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theon of *Alexandria (1) (fl. 364 ce), mathematical commentator. Extant works are (1) a commentary on *Ptolemy (4)'s Almagest (the sections on bk. 11 and parts of other books are lost); ... More

Thessalus (1), of Cos, Greek author, late 5th cent. BCE  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Thessalus of *Cos (fl. late 5th cent. bce), according to some a ‘son of Hippocrates’ (see hippocrates(2)). Next to nothing is known of him, yet attempts were made in later antiquity by *Galen and ... More

Thessalus (2), physician, 1st cent. CE  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A doctor from *Tralles. He worked in Rome and was probably dead by ce 79. None of his writings survive, but he is often mentioned by other medical writers. *Galen (10. 7 Kühn) claims that he wrote to ... More

time-reckoning  

A. T. Grafton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ancient culture knew a range of expedients for dividing the twenty-four hours of the day, for marking the succession of days in the month or year, and for dating important historical events. *Hesiod ... More

Timocharis  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Timocharis, astronomer at *Alexandria (1), made observations between 295 and 272 bce reported by *Ptolemy(4). These record positions of the moon and Venus with respect to fixed stars. He also ... More

transport, wheeled  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The wheel played a prominent role in traction in the ancient Mediterranean lands (contrast its absence in pre-Columbian societies of the Americas). It is more difficult to gauge its economic and ... More

trigonometry  

Nathan Camillo Sidoli

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The development of trigonometry as a branch of mathematics was a combined effort of mathematical scholars working in a number of different languages and cultures, over many centuries. The ... More

Vesuvius  

Edward Togo Salmon and Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vesuvius, the famous volcano on the bay of Naples, rises isolated out of the surrounding plain of *Campania. Its base is some 48 km. (30 mi.) in circumference, its central cone over 1,216 m. (4,000 ... More

veterinary medicine  

Liliane Bodson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Veterinary medicine deals with treatments, cures, and all the other means by which the health of livestock may be preserved or restored. It is rooted in the early management of stock breeding, when ... More

Vettius Valens  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vettius Valens, Greek astrologer from *Antioch(1), wrote (between 152 ce and 162) the Anthologies, an extant nine-book treatise on *astrology, preserving the only major collection of Greek ... More

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io)  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De ... More

vivisection  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

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